Mission

The purpose is to promote interaction between geography and mathematics. Publications in which elements of one discipline are used to shed light on the other receive particular emphasis. Original contributions that are purely geographical or purely mathematical also appear from time to time. IMaGe, and its original publication series, were created in 1985 by Sandra Lach Arlinghaus. 2010 was the Silver Jubilee Year of IMaGe.

In Deep Blue, there are documents deposited from the IMaGe Monograph Series, a set of book-length monographs many of which are peer-reviewed. There are documents from IMaGe's peer-reviewed journal, Solstice: An Electronic Journal of Geography and Mathematics, dating from 1990 forward. There are other documents from various special series, as well.


Interactive eBooks (refereed)

Some of these books may contain over 15,000 files. Thus, a link is provided to an external site on which the full directory structure can be used to display the entire document. Those urls, however, are not persistent. Thus, a zipped file of the document, retaining the directory structure of the externally linked file, is also provided. It has a persistent url. For longer files, a link to a summary document (.pdf) is provided. It, too, has a persistent url. These books contain a wide variety of file types including 3D maps and figures, animations, applets, virtual reality files, and so forth. When special software is needed a link is given to a free download site (which of course may change over time).


Original Monograph Series.

Founding Editor-in-Chief: Sandra Lach Arlinghaus
Advisory Board:

  • Geography: Michael F. Goodchild; Daniel A. Griffith; Jonathan D. Mayer; John D. Nystuen.
  • Mathematics: William C. Arlinghaus; Neal Brand; Kenneth H. Rosen.
  • Engineering Applications: William D. Drake; Richard Wallace.
  • Education: Frederick L. Goodman
  • Business Applications: William E. Arlinghaus; Robert F. Austin.

Solstice: An Electronic Journal of Geography and Mathematics (refereed)

Founding Editor-in-Chief: Sandra Lach Arlinghaus
Advisory Board:

  • Geography: Michael F. Goodchild; Daniel A. Griffith; Jonathan D. Mayer; John D. Nystuen.
  • Mathematics: William C. Arlinghaus; Neal Brand; Kenneth H. Rosen.
  • Engineering Applications: William D. Drake (deceased, 2002); Richard Wallace.
  • Education: Frederick L. Goodman
  • Business Applications: William E. Arlinghaus; Robert F. Austin.
  • Book Review Editors: Richard Wallace; Kameshwari Pothukuchi.
  • Educational Technology: Marc Schlossberg; Ming-Hui Hsieh.

AUTHORS OF ORIGINAL MATERIALS APPEARING IN SOLSTICE:
Ainslie, V. | Albert, D. | Ard, K. | Arlinghaus, D. E. | Arlinghaus, S. L. | Arlinghaus, W. C. | Arlinghaus, W. E. | Austin, R. F. | Baird, N. D. | Bandyopadhyay, G. | Barmore, F. E. | Barr, D. | Batty, M. | Beal, F. J. | Beier, K.-P. | Bhatia, S. S. | Blake, B. | Borgers, A. W. J. | Burkhalter, B. R. | Chattopadhyay, S. | Chaudhuri, S. | Childers, P. E. | Chirapiwat, T. | De la Sierra, R. | Derudder, B. | Drake, W. D. | Earl, E. | Frank, A. I. | Gober, C. | Goodman, F. L. | Gorstein, J. | Griffith, D. A. | Haidar, S. | Han, S.-H. | Harary, F. | Haug, R. | Hoffman, L. L. | Hogh, G. | Iyer, S. D. | Jacobs, D. A. | Kaur, K. | Kelbaugh, D. S. | Kerski, J. | Kim, E-Y. | Koenig, R. | Kos, S. | Kwon, T. | Lach, A. | Larimore, A. E. | Laug, A. | Lazzaro, A. A. | Lee, H. | Licate, J. A. | Martin, P. | McCloskey, J. C. | Metzler, D. | Muhilal | Naud, M. | Noguchi, M. | Nystuen, J. A. | Nystuen, J. D. | Onstott, B. | Oppenheim, P. J. | Oswalt, K. S. | Pak, S. | Phillips, L. R. | Pogany, T. | Ponce de Leon, J. S. | Pothukuchi, K. | Ram, B. | Rayle, R. | Robinson, Craig | Rosenblum, A. | Ryznar, R. | Sammataro, D. | Schlossberg, M. | Schumann, L. | Stern, H. L. | Tarwotjo, I. | Tilden, R. | Timmermans, H. J. P. | Tobler, W. R. | Van Acker, V. | Wagner, T. | Wallace, R. | Walton, A. | Wilson, M. L. | Witlox, F. J. A. | Woldenberg, M. J. | Zander, R. H.


Later versions of Solstice have many files associated with them (some in excess of 15,000). For these, the direct link to the external URL is provided, as it maintains complex directory structure. A link to a zipped version of the entire directory is included as a persistent reference that is most true in form to the original. For convenience, a link to a full .pdf version of the journal may be provided, along with attached files that contain animated .gifs and other linked files that do not directly display in pdf format. All are contained within a pdf package. A link to a smaller summary .pdf (in which not all features are present) is sometimes provided as an overview to the content of the full-featured zipped file or the full-featured pdf file. Regardless of the quality of the .pdf (more recent ones are better than older ones), the full webpage as an html file is superior in display; it is the format in which the material was created. [In a number of cases, multiple html files have been aggregated into a single html file for directory organization for Deep Blue; the content of the original file remains unchanged.]

  • 2013: Volume XXIV, Number 2. Link to interactive cover transmitted to Solstice distribution list on December 21, 2013. Link to online journal.

    ARTICLES: A New Topographic Functional (Edward Earl and David Metzler); Klein 4 Group: Beth Olem Cemetery Applicaiton (Sandra Lach Arlinghaus); GeoMusic: Linked Selections (Sandra Lach Arlinghaus)..

  • 2013: Volume XXIV, Number 1. Link to interactive cover transmitted to Solstice distribution list on June 21, 2013. Link to online journal.

    ARTICLES: A Study of Munich Commuting (Waldo Tobler); MatheMaPics, Part 2 (Sandra L. Arlinghaus and Joseph Kerski).

  • 2012: Volume XXIII, Number 2. Link to interactive cover transmitted to Solstice distribution list on December 21, 2012. Link to full archived journal pdf without animations. Link to content page listing full holding including animations. interactive cover, archived pdf, and associated animations not supported in the pdf. External link.

    ARTICLES: On Mathematics of Navigational Calculations for Meridian Sailing (Serdjo Kos and Tibor K. Pogany) | Part 2. Geosocial Networking: A Case from Ann Arbor, Michigan (David E. Arlinghaus and Sandra L. Arlinghaus) | A Short Note (Waldo Tobler) | Update on Varroa Mite Spread (Diana Sammataro) | QR Code Transformations (Sandra L. Arlinghaus) | QR Code Alterations (Sandra L. Arlinghaus).

  • 2012: Volume XXIII, Number 1. Full journal interactive cover in pdf format. External link.

    ARTICLES: From Tissot to Google Earth: Sampling the Earth's Graticule (Sandra L. Arlinghaus and Joseph J. Kerski) | Geosocial Networking: A Case from Ann Arbor, Michigan (David E. Arlinghaus and Sandra L. Arlinghaus) | Visual Abstracts: Institute of Mathematical Geography (Sandra L. Arlinghaus).
    VIDEO: Spatial Mathematics: Theory and Practice Through Mapping.

  • 2011: Volume XXII, Number 2. Full journal in pdf format with attached animated images (to be launched in suitable other software such as Google Earth, Quicktime, and so forth). External link.

    ARTICLES: Contemporary Views Along the First Transcontinental Railroad (Richard Koenig) | The Perimeter Project, Part 6. Connections: Scholarly Multi-tasking in a Mobile Virtual World, Part 3 (Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William E. Arlinghaus) | NOTES--selected .kmz files associated with efforts of Craig Robinson, Richard Koenig, Diana Sammataro, and William E. Arlinghaus. Note from Robert F. Austin. BOOK REVIEW: Notes and Comments on the Composition of Terrestrial and Celestial Maps by J. H. Lambert, Translated and Introduced by Waldo R. Tobler, New edition, ESRI Press, 2011.

  • 2011: Volume XXII, Number 1. Full journal in pdf format with attached animated images (to be launched in suitable other software such as Google Earth, Quicktime, and so forth). External link.

    ARTICLES: Institute of Mathematical Geography: Quick Response Code (QR Code) Archive (Sandra L. Arlinghaus) | 3D and 2D Mapping (Matthew Naud) | Ann Arbor, Downtown Historical Marker Survey (Sandra L. Arlinghaus) | The Perimeter Project, Part 5. Connections: Scholarly Multi-tasking in a Mobile Virtual World, Part 2 (Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William E. Arlinghaus) | Pall-Gelman Plume, A Contemporary Google Earth View.

  • 2010: Volume XXI, Number 2. Full journal in pdf format with attached animated images (to be launched in suitable other software such as Google Earth, Quicktime, and so forth). External link.

    ARTICLES: Patterns, Maps, and Fractals: The Case of United Kingdom Historical Data Sets(Sandra L. Arlinghaus and Michael Batty) | Mapping It Out! A Contemporary View of Burgess's Concentric Ring Model of Urban Growth (Sandra L. Arlinghaus and Daniel A. Griffith) | The Quest to Save Honey: Tracking Bee Pests Using Mobile Technology (Diana Sammataro and Sandra L. Arlinghaus) | Google Earth: A Platform for Open Data (Roger Rayle) | The Perimeter Project, Part 4: Connections: Scholarly Multi-tasking in a Mobile Virtual World (Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William E. Arlinghaus).

  • 2010: Volume XXI, Number 1. Full journal in pdf format with attached animated images (to be launched in suitable other software such as Google Earth, Quicktime, and so forth). External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: MatheMaPics (Sandra L. Arlinghaus and Joseph Kerski) | The Perimeter Project: Fragile Lands Protection Using Cemetery Zoning--Part III (Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William E. Arlinghaus) | Zipf's Hyperboloid Revisited (Sandra L. Arlinghaus with input from Michael Batty) | Fractals Take A Non-Euclidean Central Place (Sandra L. Arlinghaus).

  • 2009: Volume XX, Number 2. Full journal in pdf format with attached animated images (to be launched in suitable other software such as Google Earth, Quicktime, and so forth). External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: The Perimeter Project: Fragile Lands Protection Using Cemetery Zoning--Part II (Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William E. Arlinghaus) | Southeast Asia: Historical Place Names Visualized in Google Earth (Sandra L. Arlinghaus and Robert F. Austin) | Essays on Mathematical Geography: Contemporary Visualizations (Sandra L. Arlinghaus) | Emergency Phones: A Google Earth Approach (Sandra L. Arlinghaus) | 3D Annotated Archive (Sandra L. Arlinghaus).

  • 2009: Volume XX, Number 1. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Full journal in pdf format with attached animated images (to be launched in suitable other software such as Google Earth, Quicktime, and so forth). Summary .pdf, opens in Adobe Acrobat Reader 8.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: The Perimeter Project: Fragile Lands Protection Using Cemetery Zoning (Sandra L. Arlinghaus and William E. Arlinghaus) | Bee Ranges and Almond Orchard Locations: Contemporary Visualization (Sandra L. Arlinghaus and Diana Sammataro) | Air Pollution Changes in the Detroit Metro Area from 1988 - 2004 (Kerry Ard) | New eBook, Spatial Synthesis: Volume II, Book 4 | eBook Supplements, IMaGe Monograph 1 (Barr's sculpture) | IMaGe Monograph 2 (pneumatic postal networks).

  • 2008: Volume XIX, Number 2. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Full journal in pdf format with attached animated images (to be launched in suitable other software such as Google Earth, Quicktime, and so forth). Summary .pdf, opens in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Electronic Journals: Then and Now... A Fifteen Year Retrospective (Sandra Lach Arlinghaus and Richard H. Zander) | Charting the Past: Population-Environment Dynamics (Sandra Arlinghaus and Michael Batty) | Project Archimedes: Google Earth Experiments in Innovative Scientific Communication (Sandra Lach Arlinghaus) | Announcements of new eBooks.

  • 2008: Volume XIX, Number 1. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Full journal in pdf format with attached animated images (to be launched in suitable other software such as Google Earth, Quicktime, and so forth). Summary .pdf, opens in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Google Earth Applications in a Community Information System: Scio Residents for Safe Water (R. Rayle) | Huron River Tour, Ann Arbor (M. Naud) | Detroit North American Bridge Championship: the Google Earth Display (S. Arlinghaus) | Unit 174 American Contract Bridge League Bridge Clubs: Greater Houston (B. Onstott) | Another Tale of Two Cities Neighborhood Watch from Ann Arbor to Baghdad (S. Arlinghaus) | Real-time Animation Scripts for Google Earth (L. Schumann) | Mouth Geography...Or, Sleep Apnea and Linguistics? (W. E. Arlinghaus) | Deep Blue: IMaGe Author Applets (S. Arlinghaus)

  • 2007: Volume XVIII, Number 1. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Summary and Full pdfs, open in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Spatial Analysis through the Looking Glass (P. Martin) | 3D Atlas of Ann Arbor, 3rd Edition (S. Arlinghaus) | Update on the Varroa Mite Map [with Editorial Commentary] (D. Sammataro) | Editorial Commentary on Essays of this Section | The Prediction of Indian Monsoon Rainfall: A Regression Approach (G. Bandyopadhyay) | Autocorrelation Structure Analysis and Auto Regressive Prediction of the Time Series of Mean Monthly Total Ozone over Arosa, Switzerland (G. Bandyopadhyay and S. Chattopadhyay)

  • 2007: Volume XVIII, Number 2. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Summary and Full .pdfs, open in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Special Issue on Projective Geometry Constructions | Geo/metry/graphy -- Visual Unity (S. Arlinghaus) | The Animated Pascal (S. Arlinghaus) | Desargues's Two-Triangle Theorem (S. Arlinghaus) | Announcement and Invitation: New Student Series in IMaGe eBooks | In Memoriam: Allen K. Philbrick; Norton S. Ginsburg

  • 2006: Volume XVII, Number 1. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Summary and Full pdfs, open in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Looking at Some Data from Isard--From a presentation given at the Western Regional Science Association in Santa Fe, New Mexico, February, 2006 (W. Tobler) | Maps and Decisions: Part II--Ambiguity; Part III--Redistricting; Part IV--Club Data (S. Arlinghaus and W. C. Arlinghaus) | 3D Atlas of Ann Arbor: The Google EarthÆ Approach Part I; Part II (S. Arlinghaus) | Research Announcement: Zipf's Hyperboloid? (S. Arlinghaus and M. Batty) | Book Review: Wildberger, Norman. Divine Proportions: Rational Trigonometry to Universal Geometry (S. Arlinghaus) | Puzzle: PseudoCoupÆ : A Psubtle Puzzle (W. C. Arlinghaus) | Link to Solution (W. C. Arlinghaus)

  • 2006: Volume XVII, Number 2. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Summary and Full pdfs, open in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: SPECIAL ISSUE ON INTERNET GEOMETRY AND GEOGRAPHY | Introduction to the Special Issue | Visualizing Rank and Size of Cities and Towns. Part I: England, Scotland, and Wales, 1901-2001. Part II: Greater London, 1901-2001. (S. Arlinghaus and M. Batty) | Visualizing a Map of Walter Christaller, Poland 1941. Part I: Benchmarking the Map. Part II: Interpolation of the Benchmarked Map. (S. Arlinghaus) | Update on the Varroa Mite Map (D. Sammataro) | Announcement: 3D Atlas of Ann Arbor, 2nd Edition (S. Arlinghaus) | Banda Aceh: A View on the Globe (S. Arlinghaus).

  • 2005: Volume XVI, Number 1. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Summary and Full pdfs, open in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: In Memoriam, Frank Harary, Saunders Mac Lane | Spatial Synthesis--The Evidence of Cartographic Example: Hierarchy and Centrality (S. Arlinghaus) | Kioskland: A Strategy for Linking Hierarchical Levels of Virtual Reality Maps (S. Arlinghaus, et al.) | A Methodology for Historical Geography: Internet Implementation (A. Larimore with S. Arlinghaus and R. Haug) | Spatial Synthesis: Investigations in Progress (S. Arlinghaus)

  • 2005: Volume XVI, Number 2. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Summary and Full pdfs, open in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Exploring the Relationships between Land-use System and Travel Behaviour Concepts: Some First Findings [ed.] This file displays best in Microsoft Internet Explorer or Avant browsers (V. Van Acker and F. Witlox) | Using Asymmetry to Estimate Potential From a talk given in Redondo Beach, CA--1005. [ed.] (W. Tobler) Readers who enjoy Professor Tobler's article may also wish to consider work by Jerrold Grossman involving Research on Collaboration in Research, http://www.oakland.edu/enp/research.html, and related topics on Professor Grossman's home page, http://personalwebs.oakland.edu/~grossman/ | Photo Essay: The Emerald Ash Borer (J. Nystuen) Photos in this essay looked best using screen set at highest resolution available. | Beyond the Shadow (S. Arlinghaus and W. C. Arlinghaus) Variation on a submission for the Pirelli Relativity Challenge of 2005. | NEWS: UPDATE ON THE 3D ATLAS OF ANN ARBOR Archimedes in Ann Arbor? (S. Arlinghaus) | Virtual Flood in the Allen Creek Floodplain and Floodway (A. Domzal, U. Hwang, K. Walters)

  • 2004: Volume XV, Number 1. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Summary and Full pdfs, open in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Spatial Synthesis Sampler. Geometric Visualization of Hexagonal Hierarchies: Animation and Virtual Reality (S. Arlinghaus and W. C. Arlinghaus) | One Optimization of an Earlier Model of Virtual Downtown Ann Arbor (K.-P. Beier) | Modelling Locational Decision Making of Firms Using Multidimensional Fuzzy Decision Tables: An Illustration (F. Witlox, A. Borgers, H. Timmermans) | The View from the Top: Visualizing Downtown Ann Arbor in Three Dimensions (S. Arlinghaus, F. Beal, D. Kelbaugh) | Visualizing Accessibility II: Access to Food (M. Schlossberg) | Energy Flow: Spatial and Temporal Patterns (P. Martin) | Winter Windows: Ice Largo (A. Lach) | Spatial Analysis of Subway Zones in Boston, Massachusetts (S-H Han) | A Golfer's Resource: Huron Hills Golf Course, Ann Arbor, Michigan (A. Walton) | Visualization of Geographic Information with VRML (T. Chirapiwat, link to his server)

  • 2004: Volume XV, Number 2. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Summary and Full pdfs, open in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Spatial Synthesis: 3D Atlas of Ann Arbor (S. Arlinghaus) | Cross-discipline Analogy: Information Impedance Matching (P. Martin) | Goode's 80th! (S. Arlinghaus) | Continental USA Travel Tracks (G. Hogh) | Two Rivers Ridge: Capturing Art (S. Arlinghaus and B. Blake)

  • 2003: Volume XIV, Number 1. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Summary and Full pdfs, open in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Animated Time Lines: Coordination of Spatial and Temporal Information (S. Arlinghaus, M. Batty, and J. D. Nystuen) | Viewing the relative importance of some surface parameters associated with pre-monsoon thunderstorms through Ampliative Reasoning (S. Chaudhuri and S. Chattopadhyay) | On L1-Convergence of Modified Sine Sums (K. Kaur) |aAnn Arbor, Michigan: Virtual Downtown Experiments (S. Arlinghaus) | Tornado Siren Location: Ann Arbor, Michigan (S. Arlinghaus) | Special section, I, on Ann Arbor, Michigan.

  • 2003: Volume XIV, Number 2. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Summary and Full pdfs, open in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Lewis and Clark, 200 Years: A Visual Tribute to an Exploration. The Gates of the Rocky Mountains (S. Arlinghaus, R. Haug, A. Larimore) | Dependence of Production of Paddy on the Total Annual Rainfall: A Different Approach Combating the complexity in spatial data: A neuronal approach (S. Chattopadhyay) | Ann Arbor, Michigan: Virtual Downtown Experiments, Part II (S. Arlinghaus) | Ann Arbor, Michigan: Virtual Downtown Experiments, Part III (T. Kwon, A. Lazzaro, P. Oppenheim, A. Rosenblum)

  • 2002: Volume XIII, Number 1. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Summary and Full pdfs, open in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Research Note: Animated Map Timeline, Syria (S. Arlinghaus, S. Haidar, M. Wilson) | Classification Techniques in Complex Databases: Assessment of Vagueness and Sparsity in a Network of World Cities (B. Derudder and F. Witlox) | The Thvºnen Society, North American Division (J. D. Nystuen) | The Lights Are On, All Over the World (S. Arlinghaus) | Mapping Projects, Urban Planning 507, 2002 The University of Michigan (selections)--Interactive Internet Maps--Bus Stops and Bus Users in the City of Detroit (E.-Y. Kim); The Relationship between Bicycle Accidents and Lanes of Travel at Downtown Ann Arbor Intersections (H. Lee); Animated Maps--Beach Closures in Oakland County, Michigan: Using GIS as an Investigative Tool (J. McCloskey); MThe Possibility of Extending the Streetcar Line in Kagoshima City, Japan (M. Noguchi)

  • 2002: Volume XIII, Number 2. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Summary and Full pdfs, open in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Visual Accessibility with GIS (M. Schlossberg) | Cost Proxy Models in Rural Telephone Companies (R. Austin) | Predicting Pre-monsoon Thunderstorms--A Statistical View through Propositional Logic (S. Chattopadhyay) | Disaggregation and Targeting of Universal Service Support (R. Austin and P. Childers) | L1-Convergence of Cosine Series with Hyper Semi Convex Coefficients (K. Kaur, B. Ram, and S. Bhatia) | Spatial Synthesis: A Research Program (S. Arlinghaus and W. C. Arlinghaus)

  • 2001: Volume XII, Number 1. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Summary and Full pdfs, open in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Varroa Mite Animated Map (D. Sammataro) | Photo Essay. Water Rustlers? (High-speed connection recommended.) (J. D. Nystuen) | The Neglected Relation (S. Arlinghaus and W. C. Arlinghaus) | Maps and Decisions: Allen's Creek Floodplain, Opportunity or Disaster? (S. Arlinghaus) | Book Reviews: Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal by Eric Schlosser, New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2001. (K. Pothukuchi); High Technology and Low-Income Communities: Prospects for the Positive Use of Advanced Information Technology edited by Donald A. Schon, Bish Sanyal, and William J. Mitchell, MIT Press, 1999. (R. Wallace)

  • 2001: Volume XII, Number 2. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Summary and Full pdfs, open in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Spherical Measures without Spherical Trigonometry (W. Tobler) | What's At Home? Shelter for the Poor in Low Income Cities (J. D. Nystuen) | Base Maps, Buffers, and Bisectors (S. Arlinghaus)

  • 2000: Volume XI, Number 1. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Summary and Full pdfs, open in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link. Scroll down to appropriate issue.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Set in Stone: An Analemma in Northern Italy (J. D. Nystuen) | Personal Reflections on Solar Power (R. Wallace) | Animaps, IV: Of Time and Place--On a slow modem this article will take a long time to load (S. Arlinghaus) | Book Review: Arundhati Roy, The Cost of Living, Modern Library, 1999, 126 pp., $11.95 (pap.) (R. Wallace)

  • 2000: Volume XI, Number 2. Zipped file. After unzipping, click on index.html to launch the file in an internet browser. Summary and Full pdfs, open in Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 or later. External link.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: To the Memory of Donald Frederick Lach, 1917-2000, Dedication | Photo Essay, Fifty Years of Spatial Analysis: A Symposium in Honor of William L. Garrison 1950-2000 (J. D. Nystuen) | A Neighborhood Information System within Ann Arbor, Michigan (S. Arlinghaus and L. Phillips) | Animaps, Again (C. Gober) | Animap Sequences (High-speed connection recommended) (N. Baird)

  • 1999: Volume X, Number 1

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Dedication To John D. Nystuen, on the occasion of his retirement from The University of Michigan | Metropolitan Mining: Institutional and Scale Effects on the Salt Mines of Detroit (J. Nystuen) | Animaps III: Color Straws, Color Voxels, and Color Ramps (S. Arlinghaus and W. C. Arlinghaus) | Book Review: Andre I. Khuri, Thomas Mathew, and Bimal K. Sinha, Statistical Tests for Mixed Linear Models, John Wiley & Sons, 1998, 352 pp., $69.95 (cloth) (R. Wallace) | Book Review: Castells, Manuel (1996). The Rise of the Network Society (The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, Volume 1). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, Inc. (556 pages, bibliography 51 pages, index 23 pages) (S. Iyer).

  • 1999: Volume X, Number 2

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Listening to Raindrops, (J. A. Nystuen) | A Map of Jackson, Mississippi (S. Arlinghaus) | Books Received; Brief Summaries: Julius S. Bendat, Nonlinear Systems Techniques and Applications; Paul M. DeRusso, Rob J. Roy, Charles M. Close, Alan A. Desrochers, State Variables for Engineers

  • 1998: Volume IX, Number 1

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Animaps (S. Arlinghaus, W. Drake, J. D. Nystuen, with A. Laug, K. Oswalt, D. Sammataro) | Spatial Analysis, the Wisconsin Idea and the UW-System. The Use and Abuse of Dispersion Statistics (F. Barmore) | Revitalizing Maps or Images? (S. Arlinghaus and R. De la Sierra) | Book Review: The Universe Below by William J. Broad (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997, 432 pages) (J. D. Nystuen)

  • 1998: Volume IX, Number 2

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Animated Four Color Theorem: Sample Map (S. Arlinghaus) | Animaps, II (S. Arlinghaus) | Book Review: Rising Tide: The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 and How it Changed America, by John M. Barry (D. Albert)

  • 1997: Volume VIII, Number 1. See IMaGe Monograph 22 for scanned printout.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Why Whales Don't Freeze or Kidney-Shaped Airports: Spatial Analysis and Spatial Design (J. D. Nystuen) | To the Memory of Clyde Tombaugh, 1906-1997 (F. Harary).

  • 1997: Volume VIII, Number 2. See IMaGe Monograph 22 for scanned printout.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: The Photographic Record. SunSweep: A Visit on the Summer Solstice (J. D. Nystuen) | Buffers and Duality (S. Arlinghaus, F. Goodman, D. Jacobs) | A Graph Theoretic View of the Join-Count Statistic (S. Arlinghaus, W. C. Arlinghaus) | Differences in Feature Representation in Digital Map Bases (J. D. Nystuen, A. Frank)

  • 1996: Volume VII, Number 1. See IMaGe Monograph 21 for scanned printout.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: The Greening of Detroit, 1975-1992: Physical Effects of Decline (J. D. Nystuen, R. Ryznar, T. Wagner) | Algebraic Aspects of Ratios (S. Arlinghaus) | U.S. Route 12 Buffer (D. Jacobs)

  • 1996: Volume VII, Number 2. See IMaGe Monograph 21 for scanned printout.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Web Fractals: An Overview (S. Arlinghaus) | Part II. Elements of Spatial Planning. Theory. Merging Maps: Node Labeling Strategies (S. Arlinghaus)

  • The links below are to text files transmitted over the e-mail. A separate file of figures was also transmitted. Readers wishing to see all of it, text and figures, should look at the appropriate entry in the IMaGe Monograph Series (1995 Solstice issue), Monograph 20.

  • 1995: Volume VI, Number 1. See IMaGe Monograph 20 for scanned printout.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Motor Vehicle Transport and Global Climate Change: Policy Scenarios (R. Wallace) | Discrete Mathematics and Counting Derangements in Blind Wine Tastings (S. Arlinghaus, W. C. Arlinghaus, J. D. Nystuen

  • 1995: Volume VI, Number 2. See IMaGe Monograph 20 for scanned printout.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Elements of Spatial Planning: Theory. Part I (S. Arlinghaus)

  • The links below are to typeset TeX files which is how the journal was transmitted from 1990-1994. The person downloading the TeX file then made printout on his/her own equipment. The TeX code captures many images. To give the reader the idea, links have been added to hard copy images, printed from the TeX file, in Volume I. Beyond that, printout of all of the first five volumes appears on the links above, in suitably entitled books in the IMaGe Monograph Series. These books contain images captured by TeX code and printed out from the transmitted file, such as simple line drawings and crossword puzzles as well as photocopies of photographs which would not fit into the TeX code.

  • 1994: Volume V, Number 1. See IMaGe Monograph 19 for scanned printout.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Getting Infrastructure Built. Cleveland Infrastructure Team Shares Secrets of Success (V. Ainslie and J. Licate) | Center Here; Center There; Center, Center Everywhere (F. Barmore) | Equal-Area Venn Diagrams of Two Circles: Their Use with Real-World Data (B. Burkhalter) | Los Angeles, 1994--A Spatial Scientific Study (S. Arlinghaus, W. C. Arlinghaus, F. Harary, J. D. Nystuen)

  • 1994: Volume V, Number 2. See IMaGe Monograph 19 for scanned printout.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: The Paris Metro: Is its Graph Planar? (S. Arlinghaus, W. C. Arlinghaus, F. Harary) | Interruption! (S. Arlinghaus) | Reprint: Imperfections in the Uniform Plane (M. Dacey)

  • 1993: Volume IV, Number 1. See IMaGe Monograph 17 for scanned printout.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Electronic Journals: Observations Based on Actual Trials, 1987-Present (S. Arlinghaus and R. Zander) | Wilderness As Place (J. D. Nystuen) | The Earth Isn't Flat. And It Isn't Round Either: Some Significant and Little Known Effects of the Earth's Ellipsoidal Shape (F. Barmore) | Micro-cell Hex-nets? (S. Arlinghaus) | Sum Graphs and Geograhic Information (S. Arlinghaus, W. C. Arlinghaus, F. Harary)

  • 1993: Volume IV, Number 2. See IMaGe Monograph 17 for scanned printout.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Villages in Transition: Elevated Risk of Micronutrient Deficiency (W. Drake, S. Pak, I. Tarwotjo, Muhilal, J. Gorstein, R. Tilden)

  • 1992: Volume III, Number 1. See IMaGe Monograph 16 for scanned printout.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Computing Areas of Regions with Discretely Defined Boundaries (H. Stern) | The Quadratic World of Kinematic Waves (S. Arlinghaus, J. D. Nystuen, M. Woldenberg)

  • 1992: Volume III, Number 2. See IMaGe Monograph 16 for scanned printout.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Reprint: What Are Mathematical Models and What Should They Be? (F. Harary) | Where Are We? Comments on the Concept of Center of Population (F. Barmore) | The Pelt of the Earth: An Essay on Reactive Diffusion (S. Arlinghaus and J. D. Nystuen)

  • 1991: Volume II, Number 1. See IMaGe Monograph 15 for scanned printout.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: The Spatial Shadow: Light and Dark--Whole and Part (S. Arlinghaus, D. Barr, J. D. Nystuen)

  • 1991: Volume II, Number 2. See IMaGe Monograph 15 for scanned printout.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Reprint: Proof, Truth, and Confusion, The Nora and Edward Ryerson Lecture at The University of Chicago in 1982 (S. Mac Lane) | Digital Maps and Data Bases: Aesthetics versus Accuracy (R. Austin)

  • 1990: Volume I, Number 1. See IMaGe Monograph 13 for scanned printout.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: Reprint: Postulates of the Science of Space (W. Clifford) | Beyond the Fractal (S. Arlinghaus) | Groups, Graphs, and God (W. C. Arlinghaus)

  • 1990: Volume I, Number 2. See IMaGe Monograph 13 for scanned printout.

    ARTICLES, NOTES, AND OTHER: A City of Strangers: Spatial Aspects of Alienation in the Detroit Metropolitan Region (J. D. Nystuen) | Scale and Dimension: Their Logical Harmony (S. Arlinghaus) | Parallels Between Parallels (S. Arlinghaus) | The Hedetniemi Matrix Sum: A Real-world Application (S. Arlinghaus, W. C. Arlinghaus, J. D. Nystuen) | Fractal Geometry of Infinite Pixel Sequences: 'Super-definition' Resoultion? (S. Arlinghaus)


Awards and Selected Comments

  • Solstice was a Pirelli INTERNETional Award Semi-Finalist, 2001 (top 80 out of over 1000 entries worldwide)
  • One article in Solstice was a Pirelli INTERNETional Award Semi-Finalist, 2003 (Spatial Synthesis Sampler which appeared in Solstice, Volume XV, Number 1, 2004).
  • American Mathematical Monthly, September 1992, in Telegraphic Reviews section notes Solstice as "one of the world's first electronic journals using TeX." L. A. Steen.
  • Quotation from Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 29 November, 1991, p. 1291 - Joe Palca. "BRIEFING Online Journals When the AAAS and OCLC Online Computer Library Center announced the scheduled debut next year of their new journal--The Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials--they said it would be the world's first peer-reviewed, online science journal (Science, 27 September, p. 1480). Since then, two other such journals have made their presence known to Science. They are Solstice: An Electronic Journal of Geography and Mathematics, published by Sandra Lach Arlinghaus of the Institute of Mathematical Geography in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and Flora Online, published by Richard H. Zander, curator of botany at the Buffalo Museum of Science. Both have been around for about 2 years and are available free over several popular research computer networks."
  • Science News, January 25, 1992, p. 61. Ivars Peterson, in a report of the Annual Meetings of the American Mathematical Society. "Math for all seasons When the American Association for the Advancement of Science announced with considerable fanfare last year the 1992 debut of The Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials it was billed as the world's first peer reviewed science journal available to subscribers electronically. What the organizers of this effort didn't know was that several such electronic journals already existed. One of these concerns the application of mathematics to geography. Solstice: An Electronic Journal of Geography and Mathematics--published by Sandra Lach Arlinghaus of the Institute of Mathematical Geography a small, independent research organization in Ann Arbor, Mich.--first appeared in 1990. Its two issues per year, published appropriately on the dates of the summer and winter solstices, go to about 50 individuals who receive the journal free. Transmission costs for distributing the journal electronically over a computer network to all subscribers amount to less than $5 per issue with the cost of printing passed on the user. Libraries and other institutions that prefer printed copies pay for each issue, and those copies are generated from the computer files only when needed. 'It's all very cheap, all environmentally sound,' Arlinghaus says. But getting the journal going wasn't easy, she remarks. The biggest production problem involved photographs and figures which can't be transmitted electronically in the same, compact way as letters, numbers or even mathematical notation. At present, individuals wishing to see particular illustrations must obtain photocopies directly from the Institute of Mathematical Geography. Arlinghaus also admits that she has had trouble obtaining manuscripts for publication in this still-unconventional medium. But individuals who might initially have been skeptics 'become more receptive when they see the actual product,' she says."
  • As of March 2008, 3D buildings appearing in the eBooks had been awarded over 50 blue ribbons by the Google 3D SketchUp Warehouse and therefore appeared as part of the default Google Earth loadset.

Listings in Directories and Databases

  • Solstice is listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals maintained by the University of Lund where it is maintained as a "searchable" journal.
  • Solstice is listed on the journals section of the website of the American Mathematical Society, http://www.ams.org/
  • Solstice is listed in the EBSCO database.
  • IMaGe is listed on the website of the Numerical Cartography Lab of The Ohio State University: http://ncl.sbs.ohio-state.edu/4_homes.html
  • Solstice is listed in Geoscience e-Journals.

Other Publications, Including Reprints (with Permission)

  • Nystuen, John D., Editor. Michigan Interuniversity Community of Mathematical Geographers. Papers. Reprinted by IMaGe.

    LIST OF AUTHORS AND TITLES OF PAPERS:

    1. Arthur Getis, 1963. "Temporal land use pattern analysis with the use of nearest neighbor and quadrat methods"

    2. Marc Anderson, 1963. "A working bibliography of mathematical geography."

    3. William Bunge, 1964. "Patterns of location."

    4. Michael F. Dacey, 1964. "Imperfections in the uniform plane." As it appears in the Solstice reprint, Vol. V, No. 2, 1994 printed in the IMaGe monograph series.

    5. Robert S. Yuill, 1965. "A simulation study of barrier effects in spatial diffusion problems."

    6. William Warntz, 1965. "A note on surfaces and paths and applications to geographical problems."

    7. Stig Nordbeck, 1965. "The law of allometric growth."

    8. Waldo R. Tobler, 1966. "Numerical map generalization;" and "Notes on the analysis of geographical distributions."

    9. Peter R. Gould, 1966. "On mental maps."

    10. John D. Nystuen, 1966. "Effects of boundary shape and the concept of local convexity;" Julian Perkal "On the length of empirical curves;" Julian Perkal "An attempt at objective generalization."

    11. E. Casetti and R. K. Semple, 1968. "A method for the stepwise separation of spatial trends."

    12. W. Bunge, R. Guyot, A. Karlin, R. Martin, W. Pattison, W. Tobler, S. Toulmin, and W. Warntz, 1968. "The philosophy of maps."

  • Griffith, Daniel A. Spatial Regression Analysis on the PC: Spatial Statistics Using MINITAB. Workbook used at conferences.
  • Philbrick, Allen K. This Human World. Undergraduate textbook. Reprinted by IMaGe.
  • Kolars, John F. and Nystuen, John D. Human Geography: Spatial Design in World Society. Undergraduate textbook. Reprinted by IMaGe
  • Arlinghaus, Sandra L. MapPack. Undergraduate workbook.
  • Arlinghaus, Sandra L. and Riordan, Beverly. IMaGe Interactive Atlas. Pre-collegiate workbook.

IMaGe Contributors of Time, Effort, Advice, Opportunities, Manuscripts, and Inspiration

Note: when browsing the "Authors" button, the list that comes up includes not only authors with direct contributions to IMaGe but also co-authors of those authors with contributions elsewhere in DeepBlue. All IMaGe contributors have their names on this page. Names are linked to the associated page listing contributions, if available (within Deep Blue). In some cases, a single contributor may be listed in multiple roles (distinguishing edited work from authored work, for example). Contributors to the reprint series, such as to the Michigan Inter-University Community of Mathematical Geographers, are included. Some "author pages" may, in the interest of providing context, list citations or links to works beyond those appearing directly in IMaGe. Stars of tomorrow may take their places in this listing among stars of yesterday and today. The extent of contribution varies from individual to individual; however, all efforts are appreciated, from small to great! (Please report errors or omissions to sarhaus@umich.edu)


Acuff, Peter Zebulon | Ainslie, Virginia | Albert, Daniel | Anderson, Marc | Anselin, Luc | Antonakos, Cathy | Ard, Kerry | Arlinghaus, David Edward | Arlinghaus, S. L. | Arlinghaus, Sandra L., Editor-in-Chief | Arlinghaus, Sandra Lach | Arlinghaus, William Charles | Arlinghaus, William Charles--Associate Editor | Arlinghaus, William Edward | Armentrout, Vivienne | Austin, Robert F. | Austin, Robert F.--Specialist Associate Editor | Axon, Shirley | Baird, Nakia D. | Bandyopadhyay, Goutami | Barmore, Frank E. | Barr, David | Barrick, Brian | Batty, Michael | Beal, Fred J. | Beguin, Hubert | Beier, Klaus-Peter | Bhatia, S. S. | Bierbaum, Rosina | Blake, Braxton | Borgers, Aloys W. J. | Brand, Neal | Bunge, William | Burkhalter, Barton R. | Carlberg, Jean | Caruso, Vince | Casetti, Emilio | Chattopadhyay, Surajit | Chaudhuri, Sutapa | Childers, Porter E. | Chirapiwat, Thana | Coxeter, H. S. M. | Dacey, Michael F. | Davis, Tracy | De la Sierra, Ruben | Derudder, B. | Detter, Ray | Domzal, Alyssa J. | Doreian, Patrick | Drake, William D. | Drake, William D.--Associate Editor | Earl, Edward | Falor, Ryan | Favro, Ruth | Flaumenhaft, Carol | Fonseca, James W. | Frank, Andrea I. | Getis, Arthur | Gillett, Robert | Gober, Courtney | Gochanour, Chandra Hurd | Goodchild, Michael F. | Goodman, Frederick L. | Gordon, David J. | Gordon, Jesse | Gorstein, J. | Gould, Peter R. | Griffith, Daniel A. | Griffith, Daniel A., Editor. | Griffith, Daniel A.--Specialist Associate Editor | Granier, Bruno | Guyot, R. | Haidar, Salma | Haining, Robert P. | Hamm, Scott | Han, Seung-Hoon | Hanjoul, Pierre | Hanson, Bill | Harary, F. | Harary, Frank | Hart, Karen | Hecimovich, Sylvia | Heise, Steffen | Hoffman, Lauren L. | Haug, Robert | Hogh, Gottfried | Holmberg, Robert | Hsieh, Ming-Hui | Hwang, Ui Sang | Iyer, Seema Desai | Jacobs, Daniel | Johannson, Anna-Lena | Johnson, Merle | Johnson, Phil | Kaiserlian, Penelope | Karlin, A. | Kaur, Kulwinder | Kelbaugh, Douglas S. | Kerski, Joseph | Kim, Eun-Young | King, Perry | Kinley, William D. | Kolars, John F. | Konopka, Nora | Kos, Serdjo | Kwon, Taejung | Lach, Alma | Lach, Donald F. | Lach, Sandra | Larimore, Ann Evans | Laug, Audra | Lauzzana, Emile | Lax, Jerry | Lazzaro, Adrien A. | Leary, Margaret | Lee, Hyeyun | Licate, Jack | Lippens, Paul | Lipson, Eric | Loeb, Arthur | Long, Bruce | Longstreth, Karl | Lowenstein, Joan | Lyons, Brett | Mac Lane, Saunders | Marble, Duane | Mardia, Kanti V. | Martin, Peter A. | Martin, R. | Martin, R. J. | Maslowski, Eric | Mayer, Jonathan D. | McCloskey, Jeanine Chura | McGovern, Judy | Merscher, Michael | Metzler, David | Mich, Judith | Moellering, Harold | Mohai, Paul | Muhilal | Nagy, Denes | Navvab, Mojtaba | Naud, Matthew | Noguchi, Makoto | Nolan, N. | Nordbeck, Stig | Nystuen, Gwen | Nystuen, Jeffrey A. | Nystuen, John D. | Nystuen, John D. Editor | Nystuen, John D.--Associate Editor | O'Grady, Shawn | Onstott, Bert | Oppenheim, Paul J. | Ord, J. Keith | Osborne, Bethany | Oswalt, Kris S. | Ottaviani, Jim | Paelinck, J. H. P. | Pak, S. | Palca, Joe | Pattison, W. | Perkal, Julian | Peterson, Ivars | Philbrick, Allen K. | Phillips, Lloyd R. | Podsiadlo, Katya | Pogany, Tibor K. | Polderman, Bruce | Pollack, Peter | Pollay, Susan | Ponce de Leon, Juan Sergio | Pothukuchi, Kameshwari | Putz, John F. | Quigley, Stephen | Ram, Babu | Ramesh, R. | Rampson, Wendy | Rayle, Roger | Richardson, Sylvia | Riordan, Beverly | Ripley, Brian | Rosen, Kenneth H. | Rosenblum, Aaron | Ryznar, Rhonda | Sammataro, Diana | Schlossberg, Marc | Schumann, Lars | Shani, I. | Smith, James | Steen, Lynn A. | Semple, R. Keith | Sen, Ashish | Stern, Harry L. | Suffel, Kari | Tarwotjo, I. | Thiedemann, Karl | Thill, Jean-Claude | Thorp, Steve | Thrupp, Sylvia | Tilden, R. | Tilton, Milo | Timmermans, Harry J. P. | Tinkler, Keith J. | Tobler, Waldo | Todoro, Frances | Tope, Donna | Toulmin, S. | Uchman, Donald T. | Upton, Graham J. G. | Van Acker, Veronique | Wagner, Thomas | Wallace, Richard | Walters, Kris J., Jr. | Walton, Andrew | Warntz, William | Wartenberg, Daniel | Webber, Rebecca | Wildberger, Norman | Wilson, Mark L. | Witlox, Frank | Woldenberg, Michael J. | Woods, Wendy | Yuhasz, Wayne | Yuill, Robert S. | Zander, Richard H.



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