The rapid increases in solar wind dynamic pressure, termed sudden impulses (SIs), compress Earth’s dayside magnetosphere and strongly perturb the coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (M-I) system. The compression of the dayside magnetosphere launches magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, which propagate down to the ionosphere, changing the Auroral Field Aligned Currents (FACs), and into nightside magnetosphere. The global response to the compression front sweeping through the coupled system is not yet fully understood due to the sparseness of the measurements, especially those with the necessary time resolution to resolve the propagating disturbances. That’s why a study including modeling is necessary. On 15 August 2015 at 7.44 UT, Advanced Composition Explorer measured a sudden increase in the solar wind dynamic pressure from 1.11 nPa to 2.55 nPa as shown in Figure-1.
We use the magnetospheric spacecraft in the equatorial magnetosphere to identify the signatures of magnetosphere response to this SI event and examine the interaction of the propagating disturbances with the M-I system. With the increased time resolution of Active Magnetosphere and Polar Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE), the FAC pattern and intensity change due to SI can also be studied in more depth. We further use measurements from ground based magnetometer stations to increase our tracking capability for the disturbances in the ionosphere and to improve our understanding of their propagation characteristics. This is the first step in a comprehensive multi-point observation and a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation based investigation of the response of the coupled M-I system to sudden impulses.
Raw data and analysis files for the figures corresponding to the manuscript submission entitled "CCL2 enhances macrophage inflammatory responses via miR-9 mediated downregulation of the ERK1/2 phosphatase Dusp6"
The Evans Old Field Plant Database contains FileMaker and Excel files of data collected by Dr. Francis C. Evans during a 50-year study on successional change on Evans Old Field on the Edwin S. George Reserve. Data include plant phenology, location, and abundances observed from 1948 to 1997.
Files are uploaded as crystallographic information files (.cif), the standard text file format for representing crystallographic information.
These files contain the optimized molecular models for pentavalent plutonium incorporation reactions into/onto barite, anglesite, celestine, anhydrite, aragonite, and calcite host minerals.
The NASA MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution) spacecraft, which is currently in orbit around Mars, has been taking daily (systematic) measurements of the densities and temperatures in the upper atmosphere of Mars between about 140 to 240 km above the surface. Wind measurement campaigns are also conducted once per month for 5-10 orbits. These densities, temperatures and winds change with time (e.g. season, local time) and location, and sometimes fluctuate quickly. Global dust storm events are also known to significantly impact these density, temperature and wind fields in the Mars thermosphere. Such global dust storm period measurements can be compared to simulations from a computer model of the Mars atmosphere called M-GITM (Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model), developed at U. of Michigan. This is the first detailed comparison between direct global dust storm period measurements in the upper atmosphere of Mars and simulated MGITM fields and is important because it can help to inform us what physical processes are acting on the upper atmosphere during such large dust events. Since the global circulation plays a role in the structure, variability, and evolution of the atmosphere, understanding the processes that drive the winds in the upper atmosphere of Mars also provides key context for understanding how the atmosphere behaves as a whole system. A basic version of the M-GITM code can be found on Github as follows: https:/github.com/dpawlows/MGITM
and About 4 months of Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) measurements of densities and winds have been made by the MAVEN team during the summer of 2018 (Elrod et al., 2019). Nine reference measurement intervals during this global dust storm (1-June through 30-August 2018) are selected for detailed study (Elrod et al. 2019). The Mars conditions for these nine intervals have been used to launch corresponding M-GITM code simulations, yielding 3-D neutral density, temperature and wind fields for comparison to these NGIMS measurements. The M-GITM datacubes used to extract the density, temperature and neutral winds, along the trajectory of each orbit path between 140 and 240 km, are provided in this Deep Blue Data archive. README files are provided for each datacube, detailing the contents of each file. A general README file is also provided that summarizes the inputs and outputs of the M-GITM code simulations for this study.
Elrod, M. K., S. W. Bougher, K. Roeten, R. Sharrar, J. Murphy, Structural and Compositional Changes in the Upper Atmosphere related to the PEDE-2018 Dust Event on Mars as Observed by MAVEN NGIMS, Geophys. Res. Lett., (2019). doi: 10.1029/2019GL084378. Jain, S. K., S. W. Bougher, J. Deighan, N. M. Schneider, F. Gonzalez-Galindo, A. I. F. Stewart, R. Sharrar, D. Kass, J. Murphy, and D. Pawlowski, Martian Thermospheric Warming Associated with the Planet Encircling Dust Storm Event of 2018, Geophys. Res. Lett., submitted (2019).
Understanding how phenotypes evolve requires disentangling the effects of mutation generating new variation from the effects of selection filtering it. Tests for selection frequently assume that mutation introduces phenotypic variation symmetrically around the population mean, yet few studies have tested this assumption by deeply sampling the distributions of mutational effects for particular traits. Here, we examine distributions of mutational effects for gene expression in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by measuring the effects of thousands of point mutations introduced randomly throughout the genome. We find that the distributions of mutational effects differ for the ten genes surveyed and are inconsistent with normality. For example, all ten distributions of mutational effects included more mutations with large effects than expected for normally distributed phenotypes. In addition, some genes also showed asymmetries in their distribution of mutational effects, with new mutations more likely to increase than decrease the gene’s expression or vice versa. Neutral models of regulatory evolution that take these empirically determined distributions into account suggest that neutral processes may explain more expression variation within natural populations than currently appreciated.
Hodgins-Davis, A., Duveau, F., Walker, E. A., & Wittkopp, P. J. (2019). Empirical measures of mutational effects define neutral models of regulatory evolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. BioRxiv, 551804. https://doi.org/10.1101/551804
The main goal of this research was to identify potential molecular pathways that contribute to memory dysregulation and decline that persists long after illness or inflammation. We have previously established a subchronic immune challenge model that results in memory impairments months after the inflammatory challenge. This project aimed to determine whether memory impairments were accompanied by transcriptional dysregulation in memory related brain region (the hippocampus).
These data show the differential gene expression as log2fold change (and p-value) in males and females 3 months after immune challenge (Supp Tables 1 and 2); after a subsequent immune challenge (Supp Tables 3 and 4); the differential regulation of genes in males and females (Supp Table 5); genes differentially expressed in the hippocampus of males and females at baseline (Supp Table 6) and the differential regulation of those genes in males and females after immune challenge (Supp Tables 7,8).
These are modeling results of the thermospheric and ionospheric response to the solar eclipse of August 21, 2017. The results are discussed in a research paper published in the Journal of Geophysical Research (doi: 10.1029/2018JA026402) .
Citation to related publication:
Cnossen, I., Ridley, A. J., Goncharenko, L. P., and Harding, B. J.. ( 2019), The response of the ionosphere‐thermosphere system to the August 21, 2017 solar eclipse. J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 124. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JA026402
The dataset contains bulk sedimentary d15N, TOC, and TN data measured every 2 mm on the core SPR0901-03KC. Flood and turbidite layers are shaded with blue and orange in the files. and This work is supported by NSF OCE-1304327.
Wang, Y. , Hendy, I. L. and Thunell, R. (2019), Local and remote forcing of denitrification in the Northeast Pacific for the last 2000 years. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1029/2019PA003577
Raw Rheology data in supplement to the 2019 Macromolecules publication: "Assessing the Range of Validity of Current Tube Models Through Analysis of a Comprehensive Set of Star-Linear 1,4-Polybutadiene Polymer Blends"