The NASA MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution) spacecraft, which is currently in orbit around Mars, has been taking monthly measurements of the speed and direction of the winds in the upper atmosphere of Mars between about 140 to 240 km above the surface. The observed wind speeds and directions change with time and location, and sometimes fluctuate quickly. These measurements are compared to simulations from a computer model of the Mars atmosphere called M-GITM (Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model), developed at U. of Michigan. This is the first comparison between direct measurements of the winds in the upper atmosphere of Mars and simulated winds and is important because it can help to inform us what physical processes are acting on the observed winds. Some wind measurements have similar wind speeds or directions to those predicted by the M-GITM model, but sometimes, there are large differences between the simulated and measured winds. The disagreements between wind observations and model simulations suggest that processes other than normal solar forcing may become relatively more important during these observations and alter the expected circulation pattern. Since the global circulation plays a role in the structure, variability, and evolution of the atmosphere, understanding the processes that drive the winds in the upper atmosphere of Mars provides key context for understanding how the atmosphere behaves as a whole system.
A basic version of the M-GITM code can be found on Github as follows:
and About 30 Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) wind campaigns (of 5 to 10 orbits each) have been conducted by the MAVEN team (Benna et al., 2019). Five of these campaigns are selected for detailed study (Roeten et al. 2019). The Mars conditions for these five campaigns have been used to launch corresponding M-GITM code simulations, yielding 3-D neutral wind fields for comparison to these NGIMS wind observations. The M-GITM datacubes used to extract the zonal and meridional neutral winds, along the trajectory of each orbit path between 140 and 240 km, are provided in this Deep Blue Data archive. README files are provided for each datacube, detailing the contents of each file. A general README file is also provided that summarizes the inputs and outputs of the M-GITM code simulations for this study.
Datasets for article in CARBON: Spatial dependence of the growth of polycyclic aromatic compounds in an ethylene counterflow flame.
The experiment VUV-AMS measurements ("VUV_AMS_C2H4_Counterflow.txt") consists aerosol mass spectra data from an atmospheric-pressure ethylene/oxygen/argon counterflow diffusion flame described in Johansson et al., Proc. Combust. Inst. 36, 799-806 (2017) doi:10.1016/j.proci.2016.07.130., The experiment VUV-MBMS measurements ("VUV_MBMS_C2H4_Counterflow.txt") consists gas-phase data from an atmospheric-pressure ethylene/oxygen/argon counterflow diffusion flame described in Johansson et al., Proc. Combust. Inst. 36, 799-806 (2017) doi:10.1016/j.proci.2016.07.130., 2D CFD simulation results by KAUST mechanism II ("CFD_KM2_results.xlsx") consists stabilized CFD gas-phase species profiles along different x,y,z coordinates. Species are given by mole fractions., The SNapS2 simulation results ("SNapS2_results.zip") consist streamline I (from fuel side), i (from oxidizer side), and middle (DFFO = 5.0mm) for producing results in Fig. 5, Fig. 6, and Table 1. Three folders under each streamline ("C5H6", "C6H5CH3", and "C6H6") represent simulations by using different seeds (cyclopentadiene, toluene, and benzene respectively). The text files inside each folder are a single trace (time-history) for one SNapS2 simulation. Text file name consists "starting time"+"."+"simulation number"+".txt". For example 0.041.25.txt meaning the 25th simulation starting at 0.041s. Four columns inside the text files represent time, molecular mass, reaction index, and SMILES (Simplified molecular-input line-entry system) of the molecule., and Data citation: Wang, Q., Elvati, P., Kim, D., Johansson, K.O., Schrader, P.E., Michelsen, H.A., Violi, A. (2019). Spatial dependence of the growth of polycyclic aromatic compounds in an ethylene counterflow flame: experimental measurements and simulation results [Data set]. University of Michigan Deep Blue Data Repository. https://doi.org/10.7302/69e6-cd20
This is the flora-fauna lexical material obtained in the course of more general lexical and grammatical fieldwork on languages of central-eastern Mali (Dogon, Songhay, Bangime, Bozo). The spreadsheets in this work, duplicated in xlsx and csv formants, present our flora-fauna lexicons as of early 2019 for many languages of central-eastern Mali, and certain languages of southwestern Burkina Faso. The Malian data is in two spreadsheets (flora, fauna), while the Burkina data is in separate spreadsheets for flora, birds, fish, insects, lizards and snakes, and mammals. Please begin with the “readme” document.
WRF-Chem simulation with 1.33 km resolution using the MYJ PBL scheme over the Baltimore-Washington region and WRF-Chem simulation with 1.33 km resolution using the YSU PBL scheme over the Baltimore-Washington region
The research that produced this data involves exploring the sensitivity of orographic precipitation to changes in microphysical parameters found in the Morrison microphysics scheme within CM1 model. These microphysical sensitivities are also tested within different environments. The tests can be described as "one-at-a-time" experiments, i.e., an individual parameter is perturbed while keeping the rest constant. Annareli Morales conducted this research for her PhD research while working at the Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology lab at NCAR in Boulder, CO.
Brightness from an all-sky imager has been used as a spatiotemporal constraint for auroral inputs selected from in situ rocket measurements which are used to drive the ionospheric model. This method allows for realistic ionospheric forcing that is not captured in traditional "on-off" methods of describing PMAFs. Transient forcing (simulated PMAFs) and steady forcing ("on-off") simulations have been generated for comparison.
Our project, mainly on Dogon languages of Mali, has branched out to Burkina Faso with emphasis on documentation of the most endangered languages. Tiefo-N was studied on an emergency basis since it was down to two aging competent speakers. For additional comments and links to a reference grammar, see the readme file.
The work on the Bangime language, spoken by the Bangande people, was carried out as part of a larger linguistic fieldwork project focused on Dogon languages. Bangime is confirmed as a language isolate with no demonstrable linguistic relatives—possibly the only such isolate in West Africa.