Title: Data from radiative shock experiments with an elliptical tube Open Access Deposited
|Citations to related material|
(2018). Data from radiative shock experiments with an elliptical tube [Data set]. University of Michigan - Deep Blue. https://doi.org/10.7302/Z22805VF
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|radiative_shock_experiments_read_me.txt||2018-11-09||2018-11-09||10.2 KB||Open Access||
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|CRASH_crop_an.pdf||2018-11-05||2018-11-05||662 KB||Open Access||
|both_rad.pdf||2018-11-05||2018-11-05||5.57 MB||Open Access||
|elliptical_only.pdf||2018-11-05||2018-11-05||52.8 KB||Open Access||
Read Me for "Data from radiative shock experiments with an elliptical tube"
These data include key results from a project that ended in 2014. These results are available for free use.
The specific focus of the project, known as CRASH, was radiative shocks, which develop when shock waves become so fast and hot that the radiation from the shocked matter dominates the energy transport. This in turn leads to changes in the shock structure. Radiative shocks are challenging to simulate, as they include phenomena on a range of spatial and temporal scales and involve two types of nonlinear physics â hydrodynamics and radiation transport. Even so, the range of physics involved is narrow enough that one can hope to model all of it with sufficient fidelity to reproduce the data.
CRASH was focused on developing predictions for a sequence of experiments performed in Project Year 5, in which those experiments represented an extrapolation from all previously available data. The previous data involved driving radiative shocks within cylindrical structures, and mainly straight tubes. The Year 5 experiments drove a radiative shock down an elliptical tube. Our long-stated goal for these predictions was that the distribution of predicted values would overlap significantly with the observed distribution. We achieved this goal.
Achieving our goal required the conversion of an established space-weather code to model radiative shocks at high energy density. To obtain reasonable fidelity with respect to the experimental data required implementing a laser absorption package, in addition to a hydrodynamic solver, electron physics and heat conduction, and multi-group diffusive radiation transport. The dedicated experiments provided evidence of experimental variability, validation of the calculation of initial shock wave behavior, and validation data at many observation times using cylindrical shock tubes. Following this were preparatory experiments for and finally the execution of the Year 5 experiments, whose key results are included in this data set.
The predictive science research included a wide range of sensitivity studies to determine which variables were important and a sequence of predictive studies focused on specific issues and sets of data. This led ultimately to predictions of shock location for the Year 5 experiments. A conclusion from this project is that the serious quantification of uncertainty in simulations is a dauntingly difficult and expensive prospect. Pre-existing codes are unlikely to have been built with attention to what will be needed to quantify their uncertainty. Pre-existing experimental results are even more unlikely to include a sufficiently detailed analysis of the experimental uncertainties. And this will also be true of most experiments that might be used to validate components of the simulation. The analysis of uncertainty in any one of the physical processes (and related physical constants) is a major effort. And addressing model form uncertainty is an even bigger challenge, that may in principle require development of complete, alternative simulation models. We made a start at all of this and completed almost none of it. But by the end of a project, we finally had all the pieces in place and working that would have enabled a range of important studies and advances in relatively near-term years. But the sponsor terminated the program after only five years. For most of the participants this was a relatively minor development, although for a few of them it proved to be enormously disruptive. We believe that the cost to the nation, in work that was ready be done but now will not be, was much much larger.
The data provided here show the key results from the Year 5 experiments discussed above. Some further description and comments follow.
1. The sketch of the target was produced using a drawing program based on the experimental dimensions.
2. The annotated photograph of the target was obtained using a visible-light camera. Unfortunately, we no longer have the original digital image.
3. The colorized radiographs were obtained via backilit-pinhole radiography of a radiative shock propagating down an elliptical tube, at 26 ns after the lasers driving the shock tube fired. The images shown were smoothed spatially by an amount corresponding to the spatial resolution of the instrumentation. The numerical data that produced these images is no longer available. However, we found that about half the signal on the images was background produced by high energy x-rays. Between that and the Poisson noise from the intended, imaging x-rays, the significance of the data in these images is as follows. Within the shock tube, any pixel that is dark corresponds to a line of sight along which the average xenon density is at least a few times the initial density of 0.006 g/cc.
4. The graph showing lines and circles was produced by running many computer models, analyzing their statistical distribution, and measuring actual shock positions in the experiment. Here again, the numerical data that produced these images is no longer available.
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Suggested Citation: Drake, R Paul (2018) "Data from radiative shock experiments with an elliptical tube" University of Michigan. doi:10.7302/Z22805VF
Citations to Related Articles:
R.P. Drake, A.B. Reighard, âTheory and experiment on radiative shocksâ, Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, AIP Conference Proceedings Vol. 845, 1417-1420 (2006).
A.B. Reighard, R.P. Drake, K.K. Danneberg, D.J. Kremer, C.C. Kuranz, M. Grosskopf, E. C. Harding, S.G. Glendinning, T.S. Perry, B.A. Remington, R.J. Wallace, D.D. Ryutov, J. Greenough, J. Knauer, T. Boehly, S. Bouquet, L. Boireau, M. Koenig & T. Vinci, "Observation of collapsing radiative shocks in laboratory experiments," Phys. Plas. 13, 082901 (2006).
A.B. Reighard, R.P. Drake, J.E. Mucino, J.P. Knauer, and M. Busquet, Planar radiative shock experiments and their comparison to simulations, Phys. Plas. 14, 056504 (2007).
F.W. Doss, H.F. Robey, R.P. Drake, C.C. Kuranz, âWall Shocks in High-Energy-Density Shock Tube Experiments,â Phys. Plasmas 16, 112705 (2009).
F.W. Doss, R.P. Drake, C.C. Kuranz, âRepeatability in radiative shock tube experiments,â High Energy Density Phys. 6, 157-161 (2010). doi:10.1016/j.hedp.2009.12.007
Ryan G. McClarren, D. Ryu, R. Paul Drake, Michael Grosskopf, Derek Bingham, Chuan-Chih Chou, Bruce Fryxell, Bart van der Holst, James Paul Holloway, Carolyn C. Kuranz, Bani Mallick, Erica Rutter, Ben R. Torralva, âA Physics Informed Emulator for Laser-Driven Radiating Shock Simulations,â Reliability Engineering and System Safety 96, 1194-1207 (2011)
James Paul Holloway, Derek Bingham, Chuan-Chih Chou, Forrest Doss, R. Paul Drake, Bruce Fryxell, Michael Grosskopf, Bart van der Holst, Bani K. Mallick, Ryan McClarren, Ashin Mukherjee, Vijay Nair, Kenneth G. Powell, D. Ryu, Igor Sokolov, Gabor Toth, Zhanyang Zhang, âPredictive Modeling of a Radiative Shock System,â Reliability Engineering and System Safety 96, 1184, doi:10.1016/j.ress.2010.08.011 (2011)
F.W. Doss, R.P. Drake, C.C. Kuranz, âStatistical inference in the presence of an inclination effect in laboratory radiative shock experiments,â Astrophys. and Space Sci. 336, 219-224(2011).
R.P. Drake, F.W. Doss, R.G. McClarren, M.L. Adams, N. Amato, D.Bingham, C.C. Chou, C. DiStefano, K. Fidkowsky, B. Fryxell, T.I.Gombosi, M.J. Grosskopf, J.P. Holloway, B. van der Holst, C.M.Huntington, S. Karni, C.M. Krauland, C.C. Kuranz, E. Larsen, B. vanLeer, B. Mallick, D. Marion, W. Martin, J.E. Morel, E.S. Myra, V. Nair, K.G. Powell, L. Raushberger, P. Roe, E. Rutter, I.V. Sokolov, Q. Stout, B.R. Torralva, G. Toth, K. Thornton, A.J. Visco, âRadiative Effects in Radiative Shocks in Shock Tubesâ, High Energy Density Physics 7, 130-140 (2011) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hedp.2011.03.005
B. van der Holst G. Toth, I.V. Sokolov, K.G. Powell, J.P. Holloway, E.S. Myra, Q. Stout, M.L. Adams, J.E. Morel, R.P. Drake, âCrash: A Block-Adaptive-Mesh Code For Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics âImplementation And Verificationâ, Astrophysical Journal Supplement 194, 23 (2011).
F.W. Doss, R.P. Drake, and E.S. Myra, âOblique radiative shocks, including their interactions with non-radiative polytropic shocks,â Phys. Plasmas 18, 056901 (2011).
A.J. Visco, R.P. Drake, S.H. Glenzer, T. Doeppner, G. Gregori, D.H, Froula, M.J. Grosskopf, âMeasurement of radiative shock properties by x-ray Thomson scattering,â Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 145001 (2012).
B. van der Holst G. Toth, I.V. Sokolov, L.K.S. Daldorff, K.G. Powell, R.P. Drake, âSimulating radiative shocks in nozzle shock tubesâ, High Energy Density Physics 8, 161-169 (2012).
B. van der Holst, G. Toth, I.V. Sokolov, B.R. Torralva, K.G. Powell, R.P. Drake, M. Klapisch, M. Busquet, B. Fryxell, E.S. Myra âSimulating radiative shocks with the CRASH laser package,â High Energy Density Physics 9, 8-16 (2013)
C.C. Kuranz, R.P. Drake, C.M. Huntington, C.M. Krauland, M. Trantham, M.J. Grosskopf, S.R. Klein, âEarly-time evolution of a radiative shock,â High Energy Density Physics 9, 315-318 (2013)
C.C. Kuranz, R.P. Drake, C.M. Krauland, D.C. Marion, M.J. Grosskopf, E. Rutter, B. Torralva, J.P. Holloway, D. Bingham, J. Goh, T.R. Boehly, A.T. Source, âInitial Conditions of Radiative Shock Experiments,â Phys. Plasmas 20, 056321 (2013)
A. Chakraborty, B.K. Mallick, R.G. McClarren, C.C. Kuranz, M.J. Grosskopf, E. Rutter, H.F. Stripling, R.P. Drake, âSpline-based Emulators for Radiative Shock Experiments with Measurement Error,â J. Amer. Stat. Assoc. 108, 411-238 (2013) DOI:10.1080/01621459.2013.770688
Robert B. Gramacy, Derek Bingham, James Paul Holloway, Michael J. Grosskopf, Carolyn C. Kuranz, Erica Rutter, Matt Trantham, and R. Paul Drake, âCalibrating a large computer experiment simulating radiative shock hydrodynamics,â Annals of Applied Statistics 9, 1141 (2015).
A. Chakraborty, D. Bingham, S. S. Dhavala, C. C. Kuranz, R. P. Drake, M. J. Grosskopf, E. M. Rutter, B. R. Torralva, J. P. Holloway, R. G. McClarren, and B. K. Mallick, Emulation of Numerical Models With Over-Specified Basis Functions, Technometrics 59, 153 (2017) doi: 10.1080/00401706.2016.1164078