Martha Gruening (1889-1937), A Bibliography
‘Gomez Mill House’, ‘East St. Louis’, ‘Helen Boardman’, ‘Libertarian education’, lynching, ‘Martha Gruening’, NAACP, ‘Odenwaldschule’, ‘RACE Magazine’, ‘race riots’, ‘social activist’, Suffragist, Suffrage, ‘The Crisis Magazine’.
Martha Gruening -- suffragist, lawyer, journalist, educator, and activist – advocated for the rights of women, workers and African-Americans, and the role of civil liberties in a democratic society. Her article "Two Suffrage Movements," (NAACP Journal, The Crisis, Sept. 1912: 245-247), highlighted the commonality of societal disenfranchisement of women and Blacks. An understanding of Gruening’s values and personal philosophy emerge from the range of references in the Bibliography, including coverage of race riots, documentation of lynchings, perspectives on issues faced by the NAACP, book reviews, letters, and organizational material.
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