The Drivers of Acute Seasonal Infectious Diseases.

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dc.contributor.author Martinez-Bakker, Micaela en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2015-09-30T14:27:34Z
dc.date.available 2015-09-30T14:27:34Z
dc.date.issued 2015 en_US
dc.date.submitted en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/113643
dc.description.abstract Seasonality is a feature of all ecological systems. Earth's terrestrial and pelagic life has evolved in a highly seasonal abiotic environment with intra-annual variation in photoperiod, temperature, and precipitation, among many other abiotic and biotic factors. Seasonal aspects of mammals and birds include seasonally varying birth rates, seasonal changes in endocrine hormones, and seasonal variation in immunity. One area where seasonal biology is particularly salient is disease ecology. The mechanisms underlying the seasonality of communicable diseases are poorly understood. I propose that much of the unexplained seasonality observed in infectious disease dynamics could be attributed to seasonal biology, including (1) birth seasonality, (2) seasonal variation in immunity, and (3) seasonal cycles in parasite traits and parasite population parameters. In my dissertation, I present work on various aspects of seasonality. In Chapter II, I explored the seasonality of births in human populations and quantified the effects of birth seasonality on measles epidemics. In Chapter III, I reviewed circadian and circannual rhythms in host and parasite populations, and proposed both ecological and evolutionary models for integrating biological rhythms into the study of infectious diseases. In Chapters IV--V, I presented my in-depth ecological studies of poliovirus, a notoriously seasonal summertime infection. I explored geographical variation in polio's seasonality and tested whether human birth seasonality or transmission seasonality drove epidemics of this disease. In addition to studying polio seasonality, I revealed the connection between (i) polio's emergence and human demography, (ii) the geographical distribution of poliovirus and its persistence, and (iii) polio symptomatology and silent chains of transmission. Lastly, I highlighted the public health implications of seasonal transmission by measuring the efficacy of the two polio vaccines and discussing how seasonality can be utilized for vaccine interventions. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.subject infectious disease en_US
dc.subject seasonality en_US
dc.subject polio en_US
dc.subject measles en_US
dc.subject circadian en_US
dc.subject circannual en_US
dc.title The Drivers of Acute Seasonal Infectious Diseases. en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.description.thesisdegreename PhD en_US
dc.description.thesisdegreediscipline Ecology and Evolutionary Biology en_US
dc.description.thesisdegreegrantor University of Michigan, Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies en_US
dc.contributor.committeemember Rohani, Pej en_US
dc.contributor.committeemember King, Aaron Alan en_US
dc.contributor.committeemember Foxman, Betsy en_US
dc.contributor.committeemember Pascual, Mercedes en_US
dc.subject.hlbsecondlevel Ecology and Evolutionary Biology en_US
dc.subject.hlbtoplevel Health Sciences en_US
dc.subject.hlbtoplevel Science en_US
dc.description.bitstreamurl https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/113643/1/bakkerma_1.pdf
dc.owningcollname Dissertations and Theses (Ph.D. and Master's)
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