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Application-Aware Scheduling in Deep Learning Software Stacks

dc.contributor.authorYu, Peifeng
dc.description.abstractDL has pervaded many areas of computing due to the confluence of the explosive growth of large-scale computing capabilities, availability of datasets, and advances in learning techniques. However, the infrastructure that supports DL is still in its early stage, bearing mismatches among the hardware, the software stack, and DL applications. On the one hand, despite the emergence of new unique hardware and new use cases, the software stack that abstracts and schedules these hardware resources remains largely unchanged. On the other hand, user-defined performance metrics common in DL applications urge better schedulers tailored to the application's specific needs. Motivated by the mismatch, this dissertation revisits the system design across the stack, with a focus on the synergy between schedulers and application/system-specific information. At the bottom level, the ever-growing adoption of specialized hardware like GPUs poses challenges to efficient usage. Due to the lack of operating system arbitration, applications usually assume exclusive access, making the otherwise underutilized resources unusable for other jobs on the same host. We therefore design Salus to realize proper efficient GPU sharing. It leverages DL applications' specific usage patterns to schedule iterations and manage memory allocations, providing two missing primitives: fast job switching and memory sharing. However, even with an efficient execution platform, it is still not trivial to harvest the hardware's full potential for higher-level applications. We investigate two such cases sitting on opposite sides of a model's lifecycle: hyperparameter tuning and inference serving. Hyperparameter tuning -- which constitutes a great portion of DL cluster usage given the proliferation of distributed resources in clusters -- generates many small interdependent training trials. Existing tuning algorithms are oblivious of advanced execution strategies like intra-GPU sharing and inter-GPU execution, often causing poor resource utilization. Hence, we propose Fluid as a generalized hyperparameter tuning execution engine, that coordinates between tuning jobs and cluster resources. Fluid schedules training trials in such jobs using a water-filling approach to make the best use of resources at both intra- and inter-GPU granularity to speed up hyperparameter tuning. Moving on, inference serving also requires careful scheduling to achieve tight latency guarantees and maintain high utilization. Existing serving solutions assume inference execution times to be data-independent and thus highly predictable. However, with the rise of dynamic neural networks, data-dependent inferences see higher variance in execution times and become less predictable by a single, point estimation of the true running times. With Orloj, we show that treating and modeling inference execution times as probability distributions bring large gains for scheduling inference requests in the presence of SLO constraints. In this dissertation, we consider combining application/system-specific information with scheduling design as a means of efficiently supporting new hardware and new DL application use cases. Nevertheless, the pursuit of higher efficiency never ends. This dissertation tries to lay down the necessary mechanisms with the hope that our crude work may be a basis for further research to better scheduling algorithms and more efficient systems in the DL infrastructure.
dc.subjectDeep Learning
dc.subjectHyperparameter Tuning
dc.titleApplication-Aware Scheduling in Deep Learning Software Stacks
dc.description.thesisdegreedisciplineComputer Science & Engineering
dc.description.thesisdegreegrantorUniversity of Michigan, Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies
dc.contributor.committeememberChowdhury, Mosharaf
dc.contributor.committeememberDuraisamy, Karthik
dc.contributor.committeememberJin, Xin
dc.contributor.committeememberKasikci, Baris
dc.subject.hlbsecondlevelComputer Science
dc.identifier.orcid0000-0001-7001-6647, Peifeng; 0000-0001-7001-6647en_US
dc.owningcollnameDissertations and Theses (Ph.D. and Master's)

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