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Functional morphology of lingual protrusion in marine toads ( Bufo marinus )

dc.contributor.authorGans, Carlen_US
dc.contributor.authorGorniak, Gerard C.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2007-04-06T17:44:41Z
dc.date.available2007-04-06T17:44:41Z
dc.date.issued1982-03en_US
dc.identifier.citationGans, Carl; Gorniak, Gerard C. (1982)."Functional morphology of lingual protrusion in marine toads ( Bufo marinus )." American Journal of Anatomy 163(3): 195-222. <http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/49684>en_US
dc.identifier.issn0002-9106en_US
dc.identifier.issn1553-0795en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/49684
dc.identifier.urihttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=6807077&dopt=citationen_US
dc.description.abstractBufo marinus catches its prey by stiffening the intrinsic muscles of the tongue, rapidly flipping the tongue out of the mouth. High-speed cinematography synchronized with computer-analyzed electromyograms (EMGs) shows that during the flip the tongue is supported by the M. genioglossus medialis and that this muscle stiffens into a rod when stimulated. Coincident stiffening of the transversely arranged M. genioglossus basalis provides a wedge under the anterior tip of this rod. Stiffening of the M. submentalis depresses the mandibular symphysis and brings the dentary tips together. The M. submentalis also acts on the wedge of the basalis to raise and rotate the rigid rod of the medialis over the symphysial attachment. The tip of this lingual rod carries along the pad and soft tissues of the tongue. The lingual pad, positioned in the posterodorsal portion of the resting tongue, rotates during eversion so that its dorsal surface impacts onto the prey object. Retraction starts by contraction of the elongate, parallel fibers of the M. hyoglossus; this retracts the medial sulcus of the pad and holds the prey by a suction cup-like effect. The extensibility of the buccal membranes allows the pad to be retracted first; it reaches the posterior portion of the buccal cavity before the still-rigid, backward rotating M. genioglossus has reached the level of the symphysis. Protraction of the hyoid facilitates the extension of the M. hyoglossus. The M. sternohyoideus only retracts the hyoid and stabilizes it when the tongue starts to pull posteriorly; it does not assist tongue protrusion. The Mm. petrohyoideus and omohyoideus show only incidental activity, and the M. depressor mandibulae participates in mouth opening but is not otherwise involved in the flip. Previous hypotheses of the flipping mechanism are reviewed and evaluated.en_US
dc.format.extent2294179 bytes
dc.format.extent3118 bytes
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.format.mimetypetext/plain
dc.publisherWiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Companyen_US
dc.subject.otherLife and Medical Sciencesen_US
dc.subject.otherCell & Developmental Biologyen_US
dc.titleFunctional morphology of lingual protrusion in marine toads ( Bufo marinus )en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.rights.robotsIndexNoFollowen_US
dc.subject.hlbsecondlevelMedicine (General)en_US
dc.subject.hlbtoplevelHealth Sciencesen_US
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer Revieweden_US
dc.contributor.affiliationumDivision of Biological Sciences, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109en_US
dc.contributor.affiliationumDivision of Biological Sciences, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109en_US
dc.identifier.pmid6807077en_US
dc.description.bitstreamurlhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/49684/1/1001630302_ftp.pdfen_US
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aja.1001630302en_US
dc.identifier.sourceAmerican Journal of Anatomyen_US
dc.owningcollnameInterdisciplinary and Peer-Reviewed


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