A test of positional properties of avian wing-bud mesoderm
Carlson, Bruce M.
Carlson, Bruce M. (1988)."A test of positional properties of avian wing-bud mesoderm." American Journal of Anatomy 182(1): 96-105. <http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/49695>
AbstractSupernumerary wing structures are readily produced by grafting pieces of wing-bud mesoderm into different locations of host wing buds, but the mechanism underlying their formation remains obscure. The major aim of this study was to examine the ability of posterior quail wing-bud mesoderm, cultured in vitro long enough to lose ZPA (zone of polarizing activity) activity, to stimulate or participate in the formation of supernumerary structures when grafted into anterior slits of host chick wing buds. Small pieces of anterior and posterior quail wing-bud mesoderm (HH stages 21-23) were placed in in vitro culture for up to 3 days. After 2 days, ZPA activity of cultured mesoderm was lost. After the grafting of 2- to 3-day cultured anterior quail wing-bud mesoderm into posterior slits of host chick wing-buds, a consistently high percentage (70%-90%) of grafts result in formation of supernumerary cartilage; in this experiment, however, only a low percentage of grafts resulted in supernumerary cartilage when 2- to 3-day cultured posterior mesoderm was grafted into anterior slits. Taken with controls, these results show that positional differences exist between cultured anterior and posterior wing-bud mesoderm. Serial-section analysis of numerous operated wings has shown several patterns of contribution to supernumerary structures by cells of graft and host. Single supernumerary digits induced by grafts of ZPA mesoderm into anterior slits were normally composed entirely of host cells, but graft cells regularly contributed to skeletal elements of more complex supernumerary structures. Cartilage rods produced by anterior-to-posterior grafts were composed mostly of graft cells, but cartilage nodules and the bases of some rods were often mosaics of chick and quail cells. The results support the proposition that mesodermal cells of the quail wing-bud possess a form of anteroposterior positional memory, but its nature and the means by which the memory of grafted cells interacts with host mesoderm are still not clear.
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