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dc.contributor.authorClover, Kimberlyen_US
dc.contributor.authorHiller, Allisonen_US
dc.coverage.spatialUMBS Campusen_US
dc.date.accessioned2007-06-14T21:42:24Z
dc.date.available2007-06-14T21:42:24Z
dc.date.issued1991en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/54250
dc.description.abstractPast documentation reveals that ant and aphid interaction is either commensalistic or protocooperative. Our purpose was to determine what type of symbiotic relationship Formicidae and aphids Homoptera share. The experiment included nine Populus grandidentata saplings with ant (Formicidae) and aphid (Homoptera) populations present on their axis of the stem. There were three additional saplings in the study with ant and aphid populations on the dorsal side of the leaves. The 12 saplings were divided into three treatment groups: 1.) aphids only, 2.) aphids plus ants, and 3.) aphids plus a predator (Coccinellidae). Saplings with aphids along their axis were measured per mm2 each day for five days. Saplings with aphids on the dorsal side of their leaves were individually counted. A Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test showed a significant (n1=4,n2=4, U'=16, p<=0.05) decrease in the population size on a sapling with aphids plus lady-bird beetles. The ants may provide the protection against intensive predation and natural predators.en_US
dc.format.extent261549 bytes
dc.format.extent3144 bytes
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.format.mimetypetext/plain
dc.relation.haspartGraphen_US
dc.subjectGeneral Ecologyen_US
dc.subject.otherINSECTSen_US
dc.subject.otherFORMICIDAEen_US
dc.subject.otherHYMENOPTERAen_US
dc.subject.otherHOMOPTERAen_US
dc.subject.otherAPHIDSen_US
dc.subject.otherPOPULUSen_US
dc.subject.otherINVERTEBRATESen_US
dc.subject.otherSYMBIOSISen_US
dc.subject.otherCOMMENSALISMen_US
dc.titleAnt-aphid relationship: commensalism or protocooperative?en_US
dc.typeWorking Paperen_US
dc.subject.hlbsecondlevelNatural Resource and Environmenten_US
dc.subject.hlbtoplevelScienceen_US
dc.contributor.affiliationumBiological Station, University of Michiganen_US
dc.contributor.affiliationumcampusAnn Arboren_US
dc.description.bitstreamurlhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/54250/1/2686.pdfen_US
dc.description.filedescriptionDescription of 2686.pdf : Access restricted to on-site users at the U-M Biological Station.en_US
dc.owningcollnameBiological Station, University of Michigan (UMBS)


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