Deep Blue Help

Help Contents:

Close this window

Deep Blue is the framework for finding and preserving the best scholarly and artistic work done at the University of Michigan. In it you'll find articles, working papers, preprints, technical reports, conference papers and data sets in various digital formats. Content grows daily as new collections and items are added to Deep Blue.

The Deep Blue content is organized around collections which can correspond to both individuals and administrative entities such as schools, departments, labs and research centers. Each collection may contain an unlimited number of items.


Browse allows you to view a list of items in some specified order:

Browse by Collection takes you through the collections in alphabetical order.

Browse by Title allows you to move through an alphabetical list of all titles of items in Deep Blue.

Browse by Author allows you to move through an alphabetical list of all authors of items in Deep Blue.

Browse by Date allows you to move through a list of all items in Deep Blue in reverse chronological order.


To search all of Deep Blue, use the search box in the navigation bar at the top of the page.

To limit your search to a collection, navigate to that collection and use the search bar on that page.

Deep Blue uses the Jakarta Lucene search engine. Here are some search hints:

What is searched in the general keyword search (yellow box)
The word(s) you enter in the search box will be searched against the full text of all items that support it (image-based items, including some PDFs based on page images, may not have text embedded within them) along with the title, author, subject abstract, series, sponsor and identifier fields of each item's record.

For more information on full-text searching please contact your Deep Blue Administrator.

Search results
The Deep Blue search engine currently returns search results in "ranked by relevance" order. Future updates of Deep Blue will allow you to sort your results by different criteria.

What is not searched - Stop Words
The search engine ignores certain words that occur frequently in English, but do not add value to the search. These are:

"a", "and" , "are" , "as" , "at" , "be" , "but" , "by" , "for" , "if" , "in" , "into",

"is" ,"it" ,"no" , "not" , "of" , "on" , "or" , "such", "the" , "to" , "was"

Use an asterisk (*) after a word stem to get all hits having words starting with that root, for example:

    will retrieve selects, selector, selectman, selecting.

The search engine automatically expands words with common endings to include plurals, past tenses, etc.

Phrase Searching
To search using multiple words as a phrase, put quotation marks (") around the phrase.

Exact word match
Put a plus (+) sign before a word if it MUST appear in the search result. For instance, in the following search the word "training" is optional, but the word "dog" must be in the result.

Eliminate items with unwanted words
Put a minus (-) sign before a word if it should not appear in the search results. Alternatively, you can use NOT. This can limit your search to eliminate unwanted hits. For instance, in the search


you will get items containing the word "training", except those that also contain the word "cat".

Boolean searching

The following Boolean operators can be used to combine terms. Note that they must be CAPITALIZED !

AND - to limit searches to find items containing all words or phrases combined with this operator, e.g.:

will retrieve all items that contain BOTH the words "cats" and "dogs".

OR - to enlarge searches to find items containing any of the words or phrases surrounding this operator

will retrieve all items that contain EITHER the words "cats" or "dogs".

NOT - to exclude items containing the word following this operator, e.g.:

will retrieve all items that contain the word "training" EXCEPT those also containing the word "cat".

Parentheses can be used in the search query to group search terms into sets, and operators can then be applied to the whole set. For example:


The advanced search page allows you to specify the fields you wish to search, and to combine these searches with the Boolean "and", "or" or "not".

Select the field to search in the left-hand column and enter the word or phrase you are searching in the right-hand column. You can select the Boolean operator to combine searches by clicking on the arrow to the right of the "AND" box.

Note: You must use the input boxes in order. If you leave the first one blank, your search will not work.


The Deep Blue content is organized around collections which can correspond to administrative entities such as schools, departments, labs and research centers. Each collection may contain an unlimited number of items. This organization gives Deep Blue the flexibility to accommodate differing needs by allowing groups to:

Each collection has its own entry page displaying information, news and links reflecting its interests and those of the people who create it.

Collections can be organized around a topic, by type of information (such as working papers or datasets) or by any other sorting method a group finds useful in organizing its digital items. Collections can have different policies and workflows.


When you access an area of Deep Blue that requires authorization, the system will require you to log in. All users can register to become subscribers. Some restricted functions, such as content deposit, require authorization from the specific collection adminstrators.

You may sign on to the system if you:

Before you log in for the first time, you will need to click on "register with Deep Blue" and follow the instructions. After that, you will need to enter your e-mail address and password in the log-in form that appears. Your e-mail address should include your username and domain name. It is not case sensitive.


Type your password exactly as you entered it originally. It is case sensitive. Be sure to click on the "log in" button to continue.


Stopping during the Deposit Process:

At any point in the deposit process you can stop and save your work for a later date by clicking on the "cancel/save" button at the bottom of the page. The data you have already entered will be stored until you come back to the deposit, and you will be reminded on your "My Deep Blue" page that you have a deposit in process. If somehow you accidentally exit from the deposit process, you can always resume from your "My Deep Blue" page. You can also cancel your deposit at any point.

Progress Bar - Tabs at Top of Page:

At the top of the deposit pages you will find 7 tabs representing each step in the deposit process. As you move through the process these tabs will change appearance. Once you have started you can also use these tabs to move back and forth within the deposit process by clicking on them. You will not lose data by moving back and forth.

Choose Collection

Select Collection:

Click on the arrow at the right of the drop-down box to see a list of Collections. Move your mouse to the collection into which you wish to add your item and click.

(If you are denied permission to deposit to the collection you choose, please contact your Deep Blue Administrator for more information.)

You must be authorized by a collection administrator to deposit items to a collection. If you would like to deposit an item to Deep Blue, but don't see an appropriate collection, please contact your Deep Blue Administrator to find out how you can get your collection set up in Deep Blue.

Click on the "next" button to proceed, or "cancel/save" button to stop and save or cancel your deposit.

DEPOSIT: Describe Your Item - Page 1 top of deposit top

If you respond "yes" to any of the questions on this page, you will be presented with a modified input form tailored to capture extra information. Otherwise you will get the "regular" input form.

* More than one title - Sometimes an item has more than one title, perhaps an abbreviation, acronym, or a title in another language. If this is the case, and you want this information captured, click in the "yes" box.

* Previously issued - New items that have NOT been previously published or distributed will be assigned an issue date by the system upon Deep Blue distribution. If you are entering older items that have already been distributed or published, click in the "yes" box. You will receive a form prompting you for several pieces of information relating to publication.

* Multiple files - An item can consist of more than one file in Deep Blue. A common example of this would be an HTML file with references to image files (such as JPG or GIF files). Another example of this would be an article supplemented with a video simulation and a data file. If you are depositing more than one file for this item, click in the "yes" box.

Click on the "next" button to proceed, or "cancel/save" button to stop and save or cancel your deposit.

DEPOSIT: Describe Your Item - Page 2 top of deposit top

The information you fill in on these two screens will form the metadata record that will enable users to retrieve your item using search engines. The richer the metadata, the more "findable" your item will be, so please take the time to fill in as many fields as are applicable to your item.


This can be a person, organization or service responsible for creating or contributing to the content of the item. By clicking on the "Add More" button you can add as many authors as needed.   Examples:

If the author is an organization, use the last name input box for the organization name:


Enter the full and proper name by which this item should be known. All Deep Blue items must have a title!

Other Title: (note - this input box appears only if you indicated on the first page that the item has more than one title.)

If your item has a valid alternative title, for instance, a title in another language or an abbreviation, then enter it here. Example:

Date of Issue: (note - this input box appears only if you indicated on the first page that the item has been previously published or distributed. If Deep Blue is the first means of distribution of this item, a date will be assigned by the system when the item becomes a part of the repository.)

If your item was previously published or made public, enter the date of that event here. If you don't know the month, leave the default "no month"; otherwise select a month from the drop-down box. If you don't know the exact day, leave that box empty.

Publisher: (note - this input box appears only if you indicated on the first page that the item has been previously published or distributed.)

Enter the name of the publisher of this item.

Citation: (note - this input box appears only if you indicated on the first page that the item has been previously published or distributed.)

Enter citation information for this item if it was a journal article or part of a larger work, such as a book chapter.
For journal articles, include the journal title, volume number, date and paging.
For book chapters, include the book title, place of publication, publisher name, date and paging.

Series/Report No.:

Some of the collections in Deep Blue are numbered series such as technical reports or working papers. If this collection falls into that category, then there should be a default value in the Series Name box which you should not change, but you will have to fill in the assigned number in the Report or Paper No. input box.  Examples:


If you know of a unique number or code that identifies this item in some system, please enter it here. Click on the arrow to the right of the input box, and select from one of the choices in the drop down menu. The choices refer to:

Govt.doc # - Government Document Number - e.g. NASA SP 8084
ISBN - International Standard Book Number - e.g. 0-1234-5678-9
ISSN - International Standard Serial Number - e.g. 1234-5678
ISMN - International Standard Music Number - e.g. M-53001-001-3
URI - Universal Resource Identifier - e.g..
Other - An unique identifier assigned to the item using a system other than the above


Select the type of work (or genre) that best fits your item. To select more than one value in the list, you may have to hold down the "ctrl" or "shift" key.


Select the language of the intellectual content of your item. If the default (English - United States) is not appropriate, click on the arrow on the right of the drop down box to see a list of languages commonly used for publications, e.g.

If your item is not a text document and language is not applicable as description, then select the N/A choice. Note: The difference between English (US) and English is largely one of spelling, which can affect search results if an item is in a different form of the language than the one you expect. Here are example English (US)/English pairs: color/colour, meter/metre, analyze/analyse, bank/banque, signaling/signalling.

Click on the "next" button to proceed, or "cancel/save" button to stop and save or cancel your deposit.

DEPOSIT: Describe Your Item - Page 3 top of deposit top

Subject Keywords:

Please enter as many subject keywords as are appropriate to describe this item, from the general to the specific. The more words you provide, the more likely it is that users will find this item in their searches. Use one input box for each subject word or phrase. You can get more input boxes by clicking on the "Add More" button. Once added, input boxes can be removed by clicking on the "Remove" button. Examples:

Your collection may suggest the use of a specific vocabulary, taxonomy, or thesaurus. If this is the case, please select your subject words from that list. Future versions of Deep Blue will provide links to those lists.


You can either cut and paste an abstract into this box, or you can type in the abstract. There is no limit to the length of the abstract. We urge you to include an abstract for the convenience of end-users and to enhance search and retrieval capabilities.


If your item is the product of sponsored research, you can provide information about the sponsor(s) here. This is a freeform field where you can enter any note you like. Example:



Here you can enter any other information describing the item you are depositing or comments that may be of interest to users of the item.

Click on the "next" button to proceed, or "cancel/save" button to stop and save or cancel your deposit.

DEPOSIT: Upload a File top of deposit top

There are two methods of entering the name of the file you wish to upload:

  1. Type the full path and file name into the input box and then click on the "next" button in the lower right hand corner of the screen.

  2. Click on the "browse" button and a window showing your files will appear. You can navigate through your directories and folders until you find the correct file to upload. Double-click on the file name you wish to upload, and the name will be entered into the input box.

    Note: If you are using the Netscape browser, the default file type will be set to "HTML files", so you may not see all of your files.

Once the correct file name is in the input box, click on the "next" button to proceed.

File Description

If you specified at the beginning of the deposit process that you had more than one file to upload for this item, you will see an input box marked "File Description". The information you provide here will help users to understand what information is in each file, for instance, "main article" or "images" or "computer program" or "data set". Enter file descriptions for each item, and click on the "next" button to proceed.

DEPOSIT: File Formats top of deposit top

To properly archive and give access to a file, we need to know what format it is, for example "PDF", "HTML", or "Microsoft Word". If the system does not automatically recognize the format of the file you have uploaded, you will be asked to describe it. If the format of the file appears in the list offered, click on it and then on "Deposit". If you can't see the format in the list, click on "format not in list" and describe the format in the text box lower down on the page. Be sure to give both the name of the application you used to create the file and the version of that application, such as "Autodesk AutoCAD R20 for UNIX".

For more information about file formats, see Deep Blue Supported Formats.

Uploaded File

After you have uploaded a file, check the information in the table to make sure it is correct. There are two further ways to verify that your files have been uploaded correctly:

If you're only uploading one file, click on "Next" when you're happy that the file has been uploaded correctly.

If you're uploading more than one file, click on the "Add Another File" button (this will appear if you checked "The item consists of more than one file" on the "Deposit: Describe Your Item" page). When you are satisfied that all files for this item have been successfully uploaded, click on the "Next" button.

If you're uploading an HTML page with embedded files, click on the "Add Another File" button, and upload all files or bitstreams referenced in the html page. After all the are uploaded, in the column marked "Primary Bitstream", select the bitstream or file that is the index page or the top page for the web page. This will ensure that all of your embedded files will display properly on the HTML page. Then click on the "Next" button.


Deep Blue generates an MD5 checksum for every file it stores; we use this checksum internally to verify the integrity of files over time (a file's checksum shouldn't change). You can use checksums yourself to be sure what we've received is indeed the file you've uploaded.

If you wish to verify your files using checksums, you will need to use a local program to generate your own checksum for the files you deposit. On most UNIX-like systems (including Mac OS X), use md5sum. For instance, type "md5sum MYFILE" for every file you want to check; the summary should print on your screen. For Windows machines, MD5 tools are freely available: try md5 (from, or md5sum, available via the textutils package in Cygwin ( All of these utilities will need to be run from a command-line, or terminal, window. The entire digest printed out when you run the md5 tool on the local copy of the file you're uploading should exactly equal what you get from the file you download from Deep Blue.

DEPOSIT: Verify Deposit top of deposit top

This page lets you review the information you have entered to describe the item. To correct or edit information, click on the corresponding button on the right, or use the oval buttons in the progress bar at the top of the page to move around the deposit pages. When you are satisfied that the deposit is in order, click on the "Next" button to continue.

Click on the "Cancel/Save" button to stop and save your data, or to cancel your deposit.

DEPOSIT: License top of deposit top

Deep Blue requires agreement to this non-exclusive distribution license before your item can appear on Deep Blue. Please read the license carefully. If you have any questions, please contact your Deep Blue Administrator.

DEPOSIT: Creative Commons top of deposit top

If you'd like to make your work available via a Creative Commons license we would be happy to add one to your deposit. Please contact us.

DEPOSIT: Deposit Complete top of deposit top

Now that your deposit has been successfully entered into the Deep Blue system, it will go through the workflow process designated for the collection to which you are depositing. Some collections require the deposit to go through editing or review steps, while others may immediately accept the deposit. You will receive e-mail notification as soon as your item has become a part of the collection, or if for some reason there is a problem with your deposit. If you have questions about the workflow procedures for a particular collection, please contact the administrator responsible for the collection directly. You can check on the status of your deposit by going to the My Deep Blue page.


When your item becomes available through Deep Blue we assign it a persistent URL. Persistent URLs will not change when the system migrates to new hardware, or when changes are made to the system. The UM Library and Deep Blue is committed to maintaining the integrity of this persistent URL so that you can safely use it to refer to your item when citing it in publications or other communications. Our persistent urls are registered with the Handle System, a comprehensive system for assigning, managing, and resolving persistent identifiers, known as "handles," for digital objects and other resources on the Internet.


If you are an authorized Deep Blue depositor, or if you are a staff member responsible for Deep Blue collection or metadata maintenance, you will have a My Deep Blue page. Here you will find:


This page allows you to change the information we have for you. You must be authenticated with your log-in to change any of your personal information.


Users can subscribe to receive daily e-mail alerts of new items added to collections. Users may subscribe to as many collections as they wish. To subscribe:



For help with using Deep Blue and questions about your specific site, please contact us.

For general information and news about Deep Blue, visit the Deep Blue Website.