Brightness from an all-sky imager has been used as a spatiotemporal constraint for auroral inputs selected from in situ rocket measurements which are used to drive the ionospheric model. This method allows for realistic ionospheric forcing that is not captured in traditional "on-off" methods of describing PMAFs. Transient forcing (simulated PMAFs) and steady forcing ("on-off") simulations have been generated for comparison.
Burleigh, M., Zettergren, M., Lynch, K., Lessard, M., Moen, J., Clausen, L., Kenward, D., Hysell, D., and Liemohn, M. (2019). Transient ionospheric upflow driven by poleward moving auroral forms observed during the Rocket Experiment for Neutral Upwelling 2 (RENU2) campaign. Geophysical Research Letters. (Submitted).