Investigating minimum human reaction times is often confounded by the motivation, training, and state of arousal of the subjects. We used the reaction times of athletes competing in the shorter sprint events in the Athletics competitions in recent Olympics (2004-2016) to determine minimum human reaction times because there's little question as to their motivation, training, or state of arousal.
The reaction times of sprinters however are only available on the IAAF web page for each individual heat, in each event, at each Olympic. Therefore we compiled all these data into two separate excel sheets which can be used for further analyses.
In this work , we study the problem of allocating limited security countermeasures to protect network data from cyber-attacks, for scenarios modeled by Bayesian attack graphs.
We consider multi-stage interactions between a network administrator and cybercriminals, formulated as a security game.
We propose parameterized heuristic strategies for the attacker and defender and provide detailed analysis of their time complexity.
Our heuristics exploit the topological structure of attack graphs and employ sampling methods to overcome the computational complexity in predicting opponent actions.
Due to the complexity of the game, we employ a simulation-based approach and perform empirical game analysis over an enumerated set of heuristic strategies.
Finally, we conduct experiments in various game settings to evaluate the performance of our heuristics in defending networks, in a manner that is robust to uncertainty about the security environment.
Raw SNP genotypes are provided in STRUCTURE format, with a maximum of one SNP reported per ddRAD locus. The files "caryco_SNP.str" and "caryov_SNP.str" are genotypes for Carya cordiformis and Carya ovata, respectively. The first column of each file is the individual name, the second column is the population (see original publication for information on population locations), and the remaining columns are genotypes of individual SNPs. Rows represent individuals, with the diploid genotypes contained on two lines per individual. Missing data are entered as "0" (zero). The first row is a header with a unique identifier for each SNP. and Occurrence records for each species are provided in the file "occs_carya.csv" and contain the latitude and longitude of each record.
These data collection and analysis protocols and the attribute list are part of a larger research project, the Institute of Museum and Library Services # LG-06-14-0122-14. funded "Qualitative Data Reuse: Records of Practice in Educational Research and Teacher Development." As such, our research questions concern data reuse and data curation:
1. Data Reuse: What are the dynamics of the data reuse lifecycle (from selection of data through the reuse of data) in a qualitative digital educational archive?
2. Data curation: What special issues are involved in curating digital qualitative data for reuse?
• How can qualitative data archives best support data reusers throughout the data reuse lifecycle?
• What aspects of this experience are informative for other types of qualitative data archives?
The overall project employed mixed methods and collected interview, observational, and trace data from data reusers of video records of practice in education and repositories holding video records of practice. The interview protocol and interview codeset relate to the 44 interviews conducted with researchers and teacher-educators who have reused digital video records of practice as qualitative data for research and/or teaching.
The goal of this simulation was to examine the spread of magnetic reconnection across the dayside magnetopause upon the arrival of a tangential discontinuity of the interplanetary magnetic field from a purely northward to southward configuration. Simple solar wind conditions were used to give us input into the system. A very high resolution grid setup was used in BATS-R-US.
Biomass burning produces smoke aerosols that are emitted into the atmosphere. Some smoke constituents, notably black carbon (BC), are highly effective light-absorbing aerosols (LAA). Emitted LAA can be transported to high albedo regions like the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and affect local snowmelt. In the summer, the effects of LAA in Greenland are uncertain. To explore how LAA affect GrIS snowmelt and surface energy flux in the summer, we conduct idealized global climate model simulations with perturbed aerosol amounts and properties in the GrIS snow and overlying atmosphere. The in-snow and atmospheric aerosol burdens we select range from background values measured on the GrIS to unrealistically high values. This helps us explore the linearity of snowmelt response and to achieve high signal-to-noise ratios. With LAA operating only in the atmosphere, we find no significant change in snowmelt due to the competing effects of surface dimming and tropospheric warming. Regardless of atmospheric LAA presence, in-snow BC-equivalent mixing ratios greater than ~60 ng/g produce statistically significant snowmelt increases over much of the GrIS. We find that net surface energy flux changes correspond well to snowmelt changes for all cases. The dominant component of surface energy flux change is solar energy flux, but sensible and longwave energy fluxes respond to temperature changes. Atmospheric LAA dampen the magnitude of solar radiation absorbed by in-snow LAA when both varieties are simulated. In general, the significant melt and surface energy flux changes we simulate occur with LAA quantities that have never been recorded in Greenland.
The data file is comprised of 22,500 X-ray projections (15 scans of 1500 projections each) recorded during solidification of Al-Ge-Na. The raw data file is in .hdf format and can be reconstructed into .tiff, e.g., by using the TomoPy toolbox in Python.
This data is part of a large program to translate detection and interpretation of HFOs into clinical use. A zip file is included which contains hfo detections, metadata, and Matlab scripts. The matlab scripts analyze this input data and produce figures as in the referenced paper (note: the blind source separation method is stochastic, and so the figures may not be exactly the same). A file "README.txt" provides more detail about each individual file within the zip file.
We analyzed the structure of English language WikiProject coeditor networks and compare to the efficiency and performance of those projects.
The list of WikiProjects give an integer key, title, and unique URL for each project. The network files are indexed by the integer keys. The quality assessment logs are indexed by project title and article title. and Curation Notes: Readme file was updated Oct. 11, 2018 to include additional context on research, file contents, and organization (see first section of readme), and explanation of additional license in the deposit referring to the 'logbook' module.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) contains multiple subpopulations of medium spiny neurons (MSNs): one subpopulation expresses D1-type dopamine receptors, another expresses D2-type receptors, and a third expresses both. The relative roles in NAc of D1 neurons versus D2 neurons in appetitive motivation were assessed here. Specifically, we asked whether D1-Cre mice or D2-Cre mice would instrumentally seek optogenetic self-stimulation of those respective subpopulations in NAc, or instead avoid NAc laser stimulation. and Some statistical forms have been exported from SPSS for the purposes of accessibility to viewers. Please see the "readme" text for descriptions of each individual excel file.