The alterations of tonus and movements through the interplay between the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum
Crosby, Elizabeth C.; Schneider, Richard C.; de Jonge, Bud R.; Szonyi, Paul
Crosby, Elizabeth C.; Schneider, Richard C.; de Jonge, Bud R.; Szonyi, Paul (1966)."The alterations of tonus and movements through the interplay between the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum This work was performed in the Kresge Neurosurgical Research Laboratory. University of Michigan Meaical Center Ann Arbor. Michigan with the support of the U.S. Public Health Service grant NB 03620–04 and a United Cerebral Palsy Association of Michigan Grant. These grants have been greatly appreciated. Funds for publication of this manuscript have been provided by Mr. Alvin M. Bentley and by a grant from the Kresge Foundation. The authors wish to express their very sincere thanks for this aid. ." The Journal of Comparative Neurology 127(S1): 1-91. <http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/49991>
AbstractThis paper deals with the experimental production of involuntary movenients and abnormal tonus in macaques ( Macacu mulatta ) and their alterations in these animals and in children with cerebral palsy and other cerebral lesions. The first major subdivision of the paper has three parts. The first part describes the effects of lesions in the macaque cerebral hemispheres, ranging from a small destructive lesion in area 4 to an essentially complete bicortectomy. The case histories of a few patients document some of the results. The second part reports the effects of lesions in the macaque cerebellum ranging from small vermal injuries to complete cerebellectomies. The third part is concerned with successive lesions in the cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres of macaques and with planned cerebellar lesions in a few children with grave hypertonicity and marked involuntary movements. This subdivision is illustrated with photographs of the monkeys and the children at various stages of the procedures, photographs of many monkey brains at postmortem, and some photomicrographs showing lesions. The second major subdivision has a discussion of the anatomic and the physiologic bases for the experimental results obtained and for the operations on the children. It correlates the material presented with data from the literature and is illustrated with photomicrographs of degenerated tracts and with diagrams. The paper stresses the balancing of cerebral hemisphere and cerebellar discharges in the regulation of tonus and in the stabilizing of movements. It discusses the possibility of producing more effective tonus by making carefully planned lesions in cerebellar areas of animals or of children with highly handicapping hypertonicity.
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