Supporting Information for research article "Life cycle comparison of environmental emissions from three disposal options for unused pharmaceutical". This spreadsheet provides the calculations and values used for this study; please refer to the manuscript and supporting information (as text) available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es203987b for details about how to use this spreadsheet. We use life cycle assessment methodology to compare three disposal options for unused pharmaceuticals: (i) incineration after take-back to a pharmacy, (ii) wastewater treatment after toilet disposal, and (iii) landfilling or incineration after trash disposal. For each option, emissions of active pharmaceutical ingredients to the environment (API emissions) are estimated along with nine other types of emissions to air and water (non-API emissions). Under a scenario with 50% take-back to a pharmacy and 50% trash disposal, current API emissions are expected to be reduced by 93%. This is within 6% of a 100% trash disposal scenario, which achieves an 88% reduction. The 50% take-back scenario achieves a modest reduction in API emissions over a 100% trash scenario while increasing most non-API emissions by over 300%. If the 50% of unused pharmaceuticals not taken-back are toileted instead of trashed, all emissions increase relative to 100% trash disposal. Evidence suggests that 50% participation in take-back programs could be an upper bound. As a result, we recommend trash disposal for unused pharmaceuticals. A 100% trash disposal program would have similar API emissions to a take-back program with 50% participation, while also having significantly lower non-API emissions, lower financial costs, higher convenience, and higher compliance rates.
The Evans Old Field Plant Database contains FileMaker and Excel files of data collected by Dr. Francis C. Evans during a 50-year study on successional change on Evans Old Field on the Edwin S. George Reserve. Data include plant phenology, location, and abundances observed from 1948 to 1997.
As discussion and debates on the digital humanities continue among scholars, so too does discussion about how academic libraries can and should support this scholarship. Through interviews with digital humanities scholars and academic librarians within the Center for Institutional Cooperation, this study aims to explore some points of common perspective and underlying tensions in research relationships. Qualitative interviews revealed that, while both groups are enthusiastic about the future of faculty-librarian collaboration on digital scholarship, there remain certain tensions about the role of the library and the librarian. Scholars appreciate the specialized expertise of librarians, especially in metadata and special collections, but they can take a more active stance in utilizing current library resources or vocalizing their needs for other resources. This expertise and these services can be leveraged to make the library an active and equal partner in research. Additionally, libraries should address internal issues, such as training and re-skilling librarians as necessary; better-coordinated outreach to academic departments is also needed.
The files include an Excel file with the x-, y-, and z- coordinates that make up the nodal coordinates for a surface model of small (5th percentle) female pelvis geometry, the finite element model (.k file) that represents the nodal coordinates, and two surface files that represent the geometry (.obj and .ply).
Raw data and analysis files for the figures corresponding to the manuscript submission entitled "CCL2 enhances macrophage inflammatory responses via miR-9 mediated downregulation of the ERK1/2 phosphatase Dusp6"
The rapid increases in solar wind dynamic pressure, termed sudden impulses (SIs), compress Earth’s dayside magnetosphere and strongly perturb the coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (M-I) system. The compression of the dayside magnetosphere launches magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, which propagate down to the ionosphere, changing the Auroral Field Aligned Currents (FACs), and into nightside magnetosphere. The global response to the compression front sweeping through the coupled system is not yet fully understood due to the sparseness of the measurements, especially those with the necessary time resolution to resolve the propagating disturbances. That’s why a study including modeling is necessary. On 15 August 2015 at 7.44 UT, Advanced Composition Explorer measured a sudden increase in the solar wind dynamic pressure from 1.11 nPa to 2.55 nPa as shown in Figure-1.
We use the magnetospheric spacecraft in the equatorial magnetosphere to identify the signatures of magnetosphere response to this SI event and examine the interaction of the propagating disturbances with the M-I system. With the increased time resolution of Active Magnetosphere and Polar Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE), the FAC pattern and intensity change due to SI can also be studied in more depth. We further use measurements from ground based magnetometer stations to increase our tracking capability for the disturbances in the ionosphere and to improve our understanding of their propagation characteristics. This is the first step in a comprehensive multi-point observation and a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation based investigation of the response of the coupled M-I system to sudden impulses.
Many data sets come as point patterns of the form (longitude, latitude, time, magnitude). The examples of data sets in this format includes tornado events, origins/destination of internet flows, earthquakes, terrorist attacks and etc. It is difficult to visualize the data with simple plotting. This research project studies and implements non-parametric kernel smoothing in Python as a way of visualizing the intensity of point patterns in space and time. A two-dimensional grid M with size mx, my is used to store the calculation result for the kernel smoothing of each grid points. The heat-map in Python then uses the grid to plot the resulting images on a map where the resolution is determined by mx and my. The resulting images also depend on a spatial and a temporal smoothing parameters, which control the resolution (smoothness) of the figure. The Python code is applied to visualize over 56,000 tornado landings in the continental U.S. from the period 1950 - 2014. The magnitudes of the tornado are based on Fujita scale.
In a sensitive cochlea, the basilar membrane response to transient excitation of any kind--normal acoustic or artificial intracochlear excitation--consists of not only a primary impulse but also a coda of delayed secondary responses with varying amplitudes but similar spectral content around the characteristic frequency of the measurement location. The coda, sometimes referred to as echoes or ringing, has been described as a form of local, short term memory which may influence the ability of the auditory system to detect gaps in an acoustic stimulus such as speech. Depending on the individual cochlea, the temporal gap between the primary impulse and the following coda ranges from once to thrice the group delay of the primary impulse (the group delay of the primary impulse is on the order of a few hundred microseconds). The coda is physiologically vulnerable, disappearing when the cochlea is compromised even slightly. The multicomponent sensitive response is not yet completely understood. We use a physiologically-based, mathematical model to investigate (i) the generation of the primary impulse response and the dependence of the group delay on the various stimulation methods, (ii) the effect of spatial perturbations in the properties of mechanically sensitive ion channels on the generation and separation of delayed secondary responses. The model suggests that the presence of the secondary responses depends on the wavenumber content of a perturbation and the activity level of the cochlea. In addition, the model shows that the varying temporal gaps between adjacent coda seen in experiments depend on the individual profiles of perturbations. Implications for non-invasive cochlear diagnosis are also discussed.
This random sample of OA articles comes from Deep Blue <deepblue.lib.umich.edu/documents>, the University of Michigan’s institutional repository service. Each OA article has the following characteristics: Prior to a known date (ranging from 2006 to the 2013) these articles—the final published version—were only available by subscription. After that date, they became freely available via Deep Blue. Meanwhile, other articles from the same journal issue as the now-OA article continued to only be available to subscribers. None of the OA articles were self-selected; authors did not choose to deposit the articles in question in Deep Blue, since we made them open via blanket licensing agreements between the publishers and the library.
This is the bacterial DNA data extracted from the gram stain slides. The targeted bacteria genera and species include: Atopobium spp., bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium (BVAB) types 1, 2 and 3 in the order Clostridiales, Escherichia coli, Gardnerella vaginalis, Group B Streptococcus, Lactobacillus spp., Mobiluncus spp., Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp. We also used a primer set for Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) that includes lactic acid producing bacteria of the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, and Weissella. We calculated the relative proportion of each bacterial taxon using the bacterial copies measured by each specific bacteria primer divided by the total bacterial copies. The limit of detection was 100 copies and readings lower than the limit were considered negative
This is the clinical data and vaginal measurement data U of Alabama provided. The column names are fairly self-explanatory. There was not an original data codebook associated with it. There has been some email exchanges to clarify several variables, which is recorded in the Word file "cerclage_owenscodebook.doc".
This is the post-randomization shortest cerclage measurement of each participant who entered the randomization (which means their cerclage measurement was less than 25mm at one of the visits). The data were provided by John Owens from U Alabama. No codebook was associated with it.
We examined the community ecology of vaginal microbial samples taken from pregnant women with previous preterm birth experience to investigate whether targeted pathogenic and commensal bacteria are related to risk of preterm birth in the current pregnancy. We found a significant correlation between the community structure of selected bacteria and birth outcome, but the correlation differed among self-reported racial/ethnic groups. Using a community ordination analysis, we observed infrequent co-occurrence of Mycoplasma and bacteria vaginosis associated bacteria 3 (BVAB3) among black and Hispanic participants. In addition, we found that the vaginal bacteria responded differently in different racial/ethnic groups to modifications of maternal behavioral (ie, douching and smoking) and biological traits (ie, body mass index [BMI]). Even after accounting for these maternal behaviors and traits, the selected vaginal bacteria was significantly associated with preterm birth among black and Hispanic participants. By contrast, white participants did not exhibit significant correlation between microbial community and birth outcome. Findings from this study affirm the necessity of considering women’s race/ethnicity when evaluating the correlation between vaginal bacteria and preterm birth. The study also illustrates the importance of studying the vaginal microbiota from an ecological perspective, and demonstrates the power of ecological community analysis to improve understanding of infectious disease.
OBJECTIVE—Genital tract infection accounts for ~ 25–40% of all pre-term births. We sought to
assess the relationship between preterm birth and selected vaginal bacterial taxa associated with
preterm birth either directly or through their association with bacterial vaginosis (BV).
STUDY DESIGN—Vaginal fluid for Gram stain was collected between 17 and 22 weeks
gestation as part of a randomized trial of ultrasound-indicated cerclage for preterm birth
prevention in women at high risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth. Bacterial DNA was
extracted from the Gram stain slides and analyzed using quantitative PCR.
RESULTS—Among the 499 participants, Mycoplasma was positively correlated with increased
risk of preterm (RR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.52,2.22) as was Mobiluncus (RR=1.36; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.73)
and Atopobium (RR=1.44; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.87). However, there were strong interactions between
race/ethnic group and the presence of these and other individual taxa on risk of preterm birth. By
contrast, BVAB3 was consistently associated with a reduction in risk of preterm birth for all
racial/ethnic groups (0.55; 95%CI: 0.39, 0.78).
CONCLUSIONS—BV is characterized by a reduction of Lactobacillus, and lactic acid
producing bacteria and the presence of Mobiluncus; we found these factors and presence of
Mycoplasma to be associated with increased risk of preterm birth. By contrast, the presence of a
recently identified organism sufficient to cause BV, BVAB3, decreased risk of preterm birth.
These findings give insight into why treating BV has mixed impact on risk of preterm birth.
Introduction: Diagnostic testing is common in the emergency department. The value of some testing is questionable. The purpose of this study was to assess how varying levels of benefit, risk, and costs influenced an individual’s desire to have diagnostic testing.
Methods: A survey through Amazon Mechanical Turk presented hypothetical clinical situations: low risk chest pain and minor traumatic brain injury. Each scenario included three given variables (benefit, risk, and cost), that was independently randomly varied over four possible values (0.1%, 1%, 5%, 10% for benefit and risk and $0, $100, $500, and $1000 for the individual’s personal cost for receiving the test). Benefit was defined as the probability of finding the target disease (traumatic intracranial hemorrhage or acute coronary syndrome).
Results: A total of 1000 unique respondents completed the survey. Increasing benefit from 0.1% to 10%, the percent of respondents who accepted a diagnostic test went from 28.4% to 53.1%. [OR: 3.42 (2.57-4.54)] As risk increased from 0.1% to 10%, this number decreased from 52.5% to 28.5%. [OR: 0.33 (0.25-0.44)] Increasing cost from $0 to $1000 had the greatest change of those accepting the test from 61.1% to 21.4%, respectively. [OR: 0.15 (0.11-0.2)]
Conclusions: The desire for testing was strongly sensitive to the benefits, risks and costs. Many participants wanted a test when there was no added cost, regardless of benefit or risk levels, but far fewer elected to receive the test as cost increased incrementally. This suggests that out of pocket costs may deter patients from undergoing diagnostic testing with low potential benefit.
Transcriptional accessibility of chromatin is central to guiding CD4+ T cell function through regulation of lineage specific gene expression. Myst1 is a histone acetyltransferase responsible for acetylation of the protein tail of histone 4 at lysine residue 16 (H416ac), resulting in increased transcriptional accessibility and activation of gene transcription. Previous studies have described a role for Myst1 in governing lymphocyte development in the thymus, however the role of Myst1 and H4K16ac in guiding activation of peripheral CD4+ T cells has not been studied. Activation of human and murine CD4+ T cells resulted in upregulation of Myst1 expression, and deletion of Myst1 resulted in changes in proliferative responses to both polyclonal stimulus and exogenous cytokines. Myst1-deficient T cells also exhibited modulations in lineage commitment, with decreased function in TH1/TH2 skewing conditions and increased function in response to TH17-promoting conditions. Regulation of Myst1 function in CD4+ T cells appears governed at least in part by STAT5, as Myst1 expression is regulated by STAT5 expression and DNA binding, and modulations in H4K16ac in Myst1-deficient CD4+ T cells is observable at sites in the promoter regions of lineage specific genes following skewing to the TH1 or TH2 lineage in vitro. Taken together, these results indicate an important role for the STAT5-Myst1 epigenetic axis in governing the activation and effector function of CD4+ T cells.
The Social Environment refers to characteristics of the people and institutions in a census tract, including: 1)
Religious organizations (churches and places of worship); and 2) Voter turnout for the 2012 Presidential Election. Coverage for all data: 10-county Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor Combined Statistical Area.
Active living resources include spaces and organizations that facilitate physical activity, including 1) park land, 2) recreation areas (including parks, golf courses, amusement parks, beaches and other recreational landmarks); and 3) recreation centers (including gyms, dancing instruction, martial arts instruction, bowling centers, yoga instruction, sports clubs, fitness programs, golf course, pilates instruction, personal trainers, swimming pools, skating rinks, etc.)
Coverage for all data: 10-county Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor Combined Statistical Area.
******Michigan Indoor Corridor 2012 Dataset******
This dataset is made available for research purpose only.
Please contact Grace Tsai( email@example.com) for any questions or comments.
This dataset was used to produce the results in our IROS 2012 paper. If you use the data, please cite the following reference in your publications related to this work:
Grace Tsai and Benjamin Kuipers
Dynamic Visual Understanding of the Local Environment for an Indoor Navigating Robot
International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS'12)
The dataset contains 4 video sequences acquired with camera mounted on a wheeled vehicle. The camera was set-up so that there was zero tilt and roll angle with respect to the ground. The camera has a fixed height (0.47 m) with the ground throughout the video.
The intrinsic parameters of the cameras are:
Focal length fc = [ 1389.182714 1394.598277 ]
Principal point cc = [ 672.605430 387.235803 ]
The distortion of the camera has been corrected.
For each video sequences, an estimated camera pose in each frame of the video is provided in the file pose.txt. Each line in the file looks like:
<frame index> <x (pose)> <y (pose)> <theta (pose)>
Note the camera poses provided here are estimated by using an occupancy grid mapping algorithm with a laser range finder
to obtain the robot pose.
The dataset provides a ground truth labeling for all the pixels every 10 frames for each video. The labels of each frame is stored as a 2D matrix in a .mat file. The filename of each .mat file corresponds to the image frame. The labels can be interpreted as followed:
-2 -> ceiling plane
-1 -> ground plane
>0 -> walls
The labels of the walls are illustrated in a .pdf figure. Note the figure is only a illustration graph, not an actual floor plan.
Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the aorta of a 30 yo healthy volunteer, segmented and discretized using the software CRIMSON ( www.crimson.software).
Additionally, models corresponding to virtually-aged aortic geometries at ages: 40, 60, and 75.
The ENVIREM dataset v1.0 is a set of 16 climatic and 2 topographic variables that can be used in modeling species' distributions. The strengths of this dataset include their close ties to ecological processes, and their availability at a global scale, at several spatial resolutions, and for several time periods. The underlying temperature and precipitation data that went into their construction comes from the WorldClim dataset ( www.worldclim.org), and the solar radiation data comes from the Consortium for Spatial Information ( www.cgiar-csi.org). The data are compatible with and expand the set of variables from WorldClim v1.4 ( www.worldclim.org).
For more information, please visit the project website: envirem.github.io
The food environment is: 1) The physical presence of food that affects a person’s diet; 2) A person’s proximity to food store locations; 3) The distribution of food stores, food service, and any physical entity by which food may be obtained; or 4) A connected system that allows access to food. (Source: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyplaces/healthtopics/healthyfood/general.htm) Data included here concern: 1) Food access; and 2) Liquor access. Spatial Coverage for most data: 10-county Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor Combined Statistical Area, Michigan, USA. See exception for grocery store data below.
The rapid activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) by growth factors is increased by extracellular amino acids through yet-undefined mechanisms of amino acid transfer into endolysosomes. Because the endocytic process of macropinocytosis concentrates extracellular solutes into endolysosomes and is increased in cells stimulated by growth factors or tumor-promoting phorbol esters, we analyzed its role in amino acid–dependent activation of mTORC1. Here, we show that growth factor-dependent activation of mTORC1 by amino acids, but not glucose, requires macropinocytosis. In murine bone marrow–derived macrophages and murine embryonic fibroblasts stimulated with their cognate growth factors or with phorbol myristate acetate, activation of mTORC1 required an Akt-independent vesicular pathway of amino acid delivery into endolysosomes, mediated by the actin cytoskeleton. Macropinocytosis delivered small, fluorescent fluid-phase solutes into endolysosomes sufficiently fast to explain growth factor–mediated signaling by amino acids. Therefore, the amino acid–laden macropinosome is an essential and discrete unit of growth factor receptor signaling to mTORC1
We provide the parameters used in Umbrella Sampling simulations reported in our study "Efficient Estimation of Binding Free Energies between Peptides and an MHC Class II Molecule Using Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations with a Weighted Histogram Analysis Method", namely the set positions and spring constants for each window in simulations. Two tables are provided. Table 1 lists the names of the peptides and their corresponding sequences. Table 2 lists the parameters. The abstract of our work is the following:
We estimate the binding free energy between peptides and an MHC class II molecule using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with Weighted Histogram Analysis Method (WHAM). We show that, owing to its more thorough sampling in the available computational time, the binding free energy obtained by pulling the whole peptide using a coarse-grained (CG) force field (MARTINI) is less prone to significant error induced by biased-sampling than using an atomistic force field (AMBER). We further demonstrate that using CG MD to pull 3-4 residue peptide segments while leaving the remain-ing peptide segments in the binding groove and adding up the binding free energies of all peptide segments gives robust binding free energy estimations, which are in good agreement with the experimentally measured binding affinities for the peptide sequences studied. Our approach thus provides a promising and computationally efficient way to rapidly and relia-bly estimate the binding free energy between an arbitrary peptide and an MHC class II molecule.
The information and education environment refers to: 1) the presence of information infrastructures such as broadband Internet access and public libraries in a location; 2) a person’s proximity to information infrastructures and sources; 3) the distribution of information infrastructures, sources and in a specific location; and 4) exposure to specific messages (information content) within a specific location.
Coverage for all data: 10-county Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor Combined Statistical Area.